Early Electric Cars S & T

Version 3.2


Electric car companies of the world, made before 1940, and listed alphabetically by brand name (when available).

Hobby cars after 1908 are generally omitted. Most makers of commercial electric vehicles are included, but not covered in detail.

The years given each company represent the span of electric car production, not necessarily the total life of the company. Many were previous horse-carriage, or bicycle companies, and several continued to make internal combustion cars post electric.

The majority of these listings were prototypes, and never produced in volume.




SB   (Slaby Beringer)     1920-1923     

SB Automobilgesellschaft mbH, Berlin, Germany

Dr. Rudolf Slaby, Hermann Beringer, J. S. Rasmussen.

         Runabout, one-passenger, 57.12” wheelbase, 33½” tread, 440 lbs, optional 2-wheeled trailer for second passenger or goods. The small square-cornered body was made of wood, and the upholstery was imitation leather. A small 24-36 volt lead acid battery powered a 1.5 hp motor for a maximum speed of 13 mph, bicycle wheels, side lever steering; it had simple wagon brakes, with metal shoes pressing against the thin pneumatic rubber tires. The company told the press that they produced 300 cars in the first six months of full production; another source says 257 in the first year. The cars had strong sales (200+) in Japan.


Samson Electric Truck    1907-1910     

Alden-Samson Mfg. Co, Pittsfield, MA



St. Louis 1899-1901

1899-1900      St. Louis Electric Automobile Co     

1900-1901      St. Louis Automobile & Supply Co.        

Factory & offices, Twenty-Third & Locust, St. Louis MO.

Founded by pioneer publisher and auto-parts dealer Andrew Lee Dyke. In June of 1900, he merged his proprietary company with the Automotive Supply Co, with capitol of $10,000. The President was B. C. Keeler and Peter O’Neil was treasurer, A. L. Dyke was the manager.

The company made a small number of electric and gas cars, one could order all of the parts, and build a car at home. Purchased in 1901 by Scott.

1900        Runabout


Scheele            1899-1910

Kolner Elektromobile-Gesellschaft, Lindenthal, Cologne, Germany.

                 Heinrich Scheele

A full range of models.

1905, 25 cabs were made for Bedag.

The vehicles used twin motor drive.

Mylord (Victoria with rear spider seat) style, with solid rubber tires, 50-60 mile range, said to climb a 12% grade.

Five-ton truck with “simple” iron wheels and two 6-hp motors, speeds up to 4 mph and a range of 16-20 miles.


Schuckert        1899-1900     

Electrizitåtss-Akiengesellschaft Vorm. Schuckert & Co, Nuremberg, Germany


Scott        1900-1904

Scott Automobile Co,    St Louis, Missouri.

Semple S. Scott bought the St. Louis Electric Auto Company and continued production of their runabout with C. R. Drummond, & W. D. Pittman

1900        runabout, 2-passenger

1903        tricycle, 2-passenger wheel chairs for the 1904 St. Louis Exposition, 3 mph, with a “sensitive rail” power cut off bumper. A small seat for an attendant could be attached to the rear, and the vehicle controlled from there. Nine of these were put in service.


Siemens Brothers            1892

A fire truck, on exhibit at the Crystal Palace Exposition in London


Siemens-Schuckert 1910-1914      Siemens-Schuckert GmbH Automobilwerk Nonnendamm, Berlin, Germany

   Protos brand electric trucks.


Siemens           1912


Silvertown      1905-1910     

the Silvertown Co, Silvertown, London E, England

A subsidiary of the India Rubber Company

1908                 a four-wheel drive model was offered.


Sinclair    See Clift


Slaby-Beringer       1920 

SB-Automobil-Gesellschaft mbH, Berlin, Germany.

See SB


Slattery            1889

Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light Co. Fort Wayne, IN

James A. Jenney, Charles D. Jenney, Addison H. Nordyke, Daniel W. Marmon, Amos Hollowell, and Brainard Rorison.

An electric company based on the generation and distribution system designed and patented by James J. Wood, the Langely arc light patents, and the patents of the young Charles Jenney. Coffin purchased a controlling stake in the company in 1888; it became part of Thomson-Houston, and then, GE.

1889        Marmaduke M. M. “Duke” Slattery built an electric tricycle at Jenney with a shunt wound motor and a clutch. The car ran on 26-Volts, with a ½-hp motor of his own design.


Smith Flyer              1916-1919     

The A. O. Smith Co of Milwaukee built this early version of the Red Bug.

See Red Bug


Solignac                   1900-1903     

Stédes Voitures Électriques, Paris, France


Sperry     (a.k.a. Cleveland) 1896-1900

1896-1898      Elmer Ambrose Sperry

1898-1900      Cleveland Machine Screw Co. Cleveland, OH


Sperry invented motors, generators, batteries, mining equipment, electric cars, and inertial guidance for aircraft and boats. Sperry attended Cornell, and worked on electric rail design. After GE bought his street railway company: Sperry moved from Chicago to Cleveland. He set up in part of the old Brush Electric factory. Brush had been sold to Thompson Houston, thus becoming part of the GE Conglomerate in 1892.


In 1896, Sperry had been working on a two-cylinder gasoline car, but gas spilled and his shop burned down. He had good results with electric mining equipment, so he designed an electric alternative.

Sperry’s cars used a single control lever for most functions, such as speed and turning; there was a footswitch for a field shunt, which sales people called “the whip” (Sperry called it a dasher switch). An electric brake was optional.

A small motor, mounted in a sealed housing, drove the rear axle through a herringbone gear set.


Sperry demonstrated his prototypes for a number of prominent Clevelanders. John D. Rockefeller recommended that he sell the enterprise to a big company and stick to inventing. He sold the prototypes, patents, and his services to the Cleveland Machine Screw Co in 1898,

The cars were successful enough for them to tool up for production, Six electric runabouts, and a few other models, were built as the Cleveland. Apparently their pockets were not deep enough to last until profitability.

Much of the business, including Sperry’s electric car and battery patents, were sold to the American Bicycle Co, a holding company organized by sporting goods giant Albert Goodwill Spaulding in May of 1899. Sperry helped design the new line of Waverley electrics, which were also under the American Bicycle umbrella, but they were primarily based on the Hassler patent.

         In 1900, Three Sperrys were shown at the Chicago and New York auto shows by Walter L. Upson. Sperry himself took five cars to the Paris Automobile Exhibition. The cars won a gold medal at the exhibit.


1899-1900      The running gear (platform) could be purchased alone for whatever body the customer wished. The company offered nine body styles. All had wood wheels with solid rubber tires.

Road Wagon, 2-passenger piano box, 2-hp bipolar series motor running at 86 Volts.

Stanhope, “Princess,” 3-hp, 15 mph, 70-mile range. The battery was in a trunk behind the body.

Victoria Stanhope, with Victoria side panels

Victoria, Stanhope, with Victoria top

Rockaway, an enclosed passenger compartment for two, with a driver out front in the weather

Cabriolet, a four-passenger carriage plus a driver high out front, and a stanhope style body at the aft, with folding top.

Single Brougham, Two passengers in the cab, driver and additional passenger up higher in the front. Four wheel brakes. 5 hp motor, 18 mph

Extension Brougham, Four in the cabin, and two in the weather out front.

Doctors Coupé        2-passengers, inside drive, no front hood, with battery under the rear hood. A contender for the first inside drive automobile, it was a phone booth on wheels


STAE                 1905-1913     

The Societá Torinese Automobili Elettrici, Corso Regina Margherita, Turin, Italy    

Built under Krieger license in Italy. Many of the cars were Krieger-Brasier hybrids.

1909        Victoria Phaeton (Duc-de-dame), 2-passengers, right hand drive, wheel steering, wood wheels, single 10-hp motor with Carden shaft drive, Renault style hood    



Standard 1911-1915     

Standard Electric Car Co, Hupp Street, adjacent to the American Gear & Mfg factory, Jackson, MI

When Studebaker went out of the electric car business their electric car designer, Clement F. Krueger, teamed with Charles G. McCutchen to start his own company, and the Standard Electric was born.

C. G. McCutchen, president (American Gear & Manufacturing, later sold to the Hupp Motor Co); Charles E. Ulrickson, secretary/treasurer; C. F. Krueger, VP.

1913, February, Hayden Eames became general manager

Fewer than 400 units produced.

May 23rd 1914, the unsecured creditors granted the company four additional months to settle. They included Westinghouse, Goodyear, Walker-Wells Co (Aluminum clad bodies on ash frames), American Gear & Manufacturing Co, and Goshen Buggy Top.

In 1915, the factory was sold to Benjamin Brisco,


Westinghouse high-speed (1,650 RPM, 26 Ampere, 48 Volt) motors, Exide battery, Parrish & Bingham rear axle, Hayes wheels, Goodyear tires.


M             Brougham, with shaft drive, carriage lights, no headlights, ½ elliptic springs front and rear, rain visor windshield, $1,850


M             Roadster, 2-passengers, 96” wheelbase, with a Renault style hood

M             Coupé, seats 4, 6 speeds, 96” wb, 32” wheels, 2,250 lbs, $1,850

M             Brougham, 91” wb, $1,885


         M             Roadster, 2-passengers, 96” wb,   $1,785

         M-3 Coupé, 4-passengers, larger interior (4” wider, 3” taller), 96” wheelbase, 30-cell 11 plate M V Exide battery, Shaft/bevel drive with no u joints and double reduction in rear axle, clear-vision windshield with vent at top, 10 inch longer springs, $1885.

         M             Brougham, 5-passengers, $2,250, new model


M             Coupé, 3-passengers, rear seat lever, 96” wb, 30 Exide cells, 6 speeds, still no headlights, the motor was suspended on vertical gimbals, $1,990

M             Roadster, 2-passengers, buggy top, $1,785


Stanton            1902       

Waltham, MA

         Successor to the New England


Stearns            1899-1901     

E. C. Stearns & Co. Syracuse, NY (no relation to Stearns-Knight).

Edward C. Stearns was a bicycle, tool, typewriter, and hardware maker. His company held many assigned patents, and he had many of his own.

Stanhope, 2-passengers, 2½-4 hp motor at 88 Volts, driving a differential at the center of the axle, with a rawhide pinion at an 8-1 ratio, 2,000 lbs


Steinmetz       1920-1924

Steinmetz Electric Motor Car Corp, Grantley Avenue, near the Western Maryland Railway, Baltimore, MD

Another iteration of the Dey rotating field motor concept, claimed to produce more power per pound, while abrogating the need for a differential. Most of the production trucks had normal motors.

Capitalized at $2 Million in 1919.

Prototypes were made in 1921 and in 1923 the company also made a 1,000 and 1,500 lb delivery truck. Steinmetz passed away in 1923, and production ceased in 1924.


Stella                1903

Cie de l’Industrie Electrique et Mécanique, Geneva, Switzerland.

A maker of DC generation and distribution equipment, especially for electric rail, including high voltage DC locomotives. They also made motors, elevators, and such. Around 1903 they made some electric and hybrid vehicles. Through 1908 they made gasoline cars.


Stigler              1921       

Officine Meccaniche Stigler SA, Milan, Italy.

An elevator manufacturer            


Still                   1895-1903     

Canadian Motor Syndicate, Toronto, Canada

         Still Motor Co. 710 Yonge Street, Toronto, Canada.

William J. Still, Thomas Bengough, L. W. Doring, C. W. Chadwick, & Joseph Heighington.

Still designed his first electric in 1893, he made all types of vehicles. By April, 1898 Still had turned his attention to explosion engines.


Hansom, made for patent attorney F. B. Featherstonbaugh to his design, with a celluloid blind in front, 3 pneumatic tired bicycle wheels, drum brake on axle, 24 Volt 140 A h battery, with spiral ribbon plates, weighing 279 lbs, 4-hp 6-pole disc armature motor with six copper brushes, 93% efficiency, geared to axle at a 12-1 reduction, three speed controller. The steering lever also controlled the speed. Total vehicle weight 700 lbs.


Tricycle, 2-passengers, 180 lb Still Battery, ½ hp 70 lb Still motor, frame of ½ x 1 ¼ inch wrought iron, the single rear wheel steered, the battery was under a wicker seat.


Stringer           1913

         J. W. Stringer, Long Beach, CA

At least one car was made (and registered) for his own use


Storms           1915

Storms Electric Car Co, 807-815 Scotten Avenue, Detroit, MI

William E. Storms, formerly of Anderson Electric Car Co, and then Colonial (1911-1913)

All three models were equipped with electric lights inside and out, and an electric horn. They traveled 40 to 50 miles on a single charge, and had a 44-inch tread with a 90-inch wheelbase and 28x3 inch tires, either pneumatic or cushion.

Roadster, 2-passengers, bevel drive, wheel or lever steering, upholstered in leather with a mohair top, $750

Coupé, three-passengers, mohair top, upholstered with broadcloth, $950

 Light delivery car, $650


Strong & Rogers             1900-01 

Strong & Rogers Co, Cleveland, OH.

Edwin L. Strong & Lewis H. Rogers. Strong was a successful drug wholesaler, and Rogers was known for his work at the Brush Electric Co.

Forty-cell battery, full elliptical springs front and rear, with a 2½ hp Elwell-Parker motor. The motor coupled directly to the right rear wheel, with a differential in the gearwheel.

Spider Stanhope, $1,200

Fancy version, $2,000


Studebaker   1902-1912

         1902-1903 Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Co, South Bend, Indiana

         1903-1911      Studebaker Automobile Co.

         1911 forward; Studebaker Incorporated


John Studebaker (1799-1877) had five sons.

1852        February, the Studebaker Wagon Co was a blacksmithing and woodworking shop founded by the oldest sons, Henry and Clement Studebaker, to repair and build wagons. Cash, from the two wagons they made the first year, came to $175.

There were thousands of local wagon builders throughout North America.

1857        The brothers got their first contract from the Union Army to build wagons. A third brother, John Mohler Studebaker, returned from the Placerville, California gold fields with $8,000 from manufacturing wheelbarrows for miners. To finance expanding factory capacity; John bought out Henry, who objected to building military vehicles on religious grounds.

1868        Peter E. Studebaker joined John M. & Clement, to form the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company.

As many as half of the Conestoga wagons crossing the prairies for the nation’s westward expansion were built by Studebaker. By 1876 Studebaker had become the world’s largest wagon and carriage co.

1899        Studebaker got a contract to make 100 bodies for some Electric Vehicle Co lead cabs.

J. M. Studebaker’s son-in-law, Fred Fish, had been advocating for entry into the new motor vehicle business, and they made a few electric Omnibuses to take passengers from the railroad station to the Studebaker Theatre.

1901        August, Studebaker announced they were to make motorcars.

1902        The first Electric car was sold February 12, to Mr. W. F. Blees of Macon, Missouri. They leased the Crockett Building for automobile manufacturing that same month.

Despite Studebaker’s tradition of solid-heavy-wagons, their electrics were made with light bicycle technologies, utilizing rectangular steel tube frames and wire wheeled platforms; supplied by the Lindsey Automobile Parts Co. The bodies were painted black, with dark green running gear.

1903        March, The automotive part of Studebaker split off, incorporated under Indiana law as the Studebaker Automobile Co. George M. Studebaker, president; Nelson J. Riley, vice-president; Clement Studebaker Jr. treasurer; J. M. Studebaker Jr. secretary; T. W. Goodridge, general manager.

1904        H. Hayden Eames, with engineer William P. Kennedy (both from Pope/Columbia,) set up shop as general manager.

1911        Studebaker incorporated to finance the purchase of EMF, maker of their gasoline car platforms, after which they decided to concentrate on explosion cars.

Studebaker continued making horse drawn vehicles until 1919.



Clem Krueger designed the electric cars. Studebaker electrics had Westinghouse motors and controllers.

The Chassis’ for the initial light car platforms were from the (Thomas J.) Lindsay Automobile Parts Co of Indianapolis, using their patented mid-axle differential, single chain-drive system (similar to Baker’s.)


20 cars were made the first year; they had a top speed of 13 mph, weighed 1,350 lbs, with a 40 Volt 24 Ampere Westinghouse motor hinged to the frame, 96-Ampere hour battery, and claimed range of 40 miles.

1354        Runabout, Stick Seat, no top, with a twenty-cell battery, full elliptical springs, chain drive.

1355        Runabout, Panel Seat, leather top optional

1357        Trap, leather top optional

1358        Stanhope

1363        Stanhope, with leather top


A 24-cell 48-Volt Exide battery in rear compartment, steel tube frame with the chassis suspended above it. Chain drive to live rear axle, the vehicles weighed 1,350 lbs with a 570 lb battery. Four speeds to 13 mph, 40-mile range, two independent brakes, side steering tiller, pneumatic tires, 1¼-hp motor.

1354        Runabout, spindle seat, wire wheels

1355        Runabout, panel seat, wood wheels, buggy top

1358        Stanhope,

1363        Stanhope, closed top, wood wheels


Studebaker introduced new Edison Battery compatible cars, with a little more room under the hoods. One was shipped to Edison mid-year.

24-cell battery, double chain drive, Westinghouse motor, wood wheels

1355        Runabout, with top, $1,010

1363        Stanhope, closed top, 62” wb, 1,500 lbs, $1,150

The Victoria & Surrey used different chassis’.

1396        Victoria, 69” wb, 1,600 lbs, four speeds to 14 mph, 24 cell lead battery $1,600, 38 cell Edison battery $1,775.

                  Surrey, solid rubber tires,


The light one-motor electric vehicles had side lever steering with a single roller chain driving the rear axle at the center.

9016        Runabout, piano box body, 48 Volts at 24 Amperes, 24-cells, 61” wb, 13 mph, 30 x 3” clincher tires. Flat leather dasher and leather fenders. Body black with dark green gear and carmine stripe or dark maroon with gear and wheels in lighter maroon. Carriage lights on either side of seat, no headlights, $950.

Supplied with a “close” (Victoria), buggy or Goddard top at extra charge.

9017        Electric Trap 48 Volts, 24 Amperes, single chain drive, 13 mph, 40 mile range, 61” wb, 30 x 3” tires, 1,400 lbs, olive green with black stripe or red with black stripe, $850.

9019        Stanhope, 48 Volts 24 Amperes, 24-cells, 12 mph, 61” wb, side windows in Victoria top, dark green & black with the gear in carmine or dark green, closed top, $1,050.

9021        Special Stanhope, 50 Volts at 30 Amperes, 35-cells, 18 mph, 71” wb, 1,900 lbs, Olive green with black stripe or two shades of carmine, open, $1,650.

9022        Victoria, 50 Volt 30 Ampere motor, 40 mile range, 68” wb, 14 mph, no side windows in top, dark blue with a light blue stripe or Studebaker green with carmine stripe, with Victoria or special quartered top, $1,750.

9250        1,000 lb Delivery, $2,200

9251        2,500 lb Delivery, $2,800

9252        3½-Ton stake truck, $3,500

9253        5-Ton Stake Truck, $4,200

9502        Along with the electrics, Studebaker offered a 2-cylinder 16 hp gasoline 4-passenger touring car. Right hand drive with wheel steering and the engine in front.

                 Studebaker also made two-motor trucks, with the motors at the extreme aft end, behind the rear axle, driving the rear wheels by roller chains. There were an open bed express wagons, enclosed piano or furniture wagon, and a heavy stake truck, with wheel steering by a driver out front. The enclosed wagon had an overhang for the driver. The heavy two motor stake truck with the driver elevated on a box seat, it had iron tires and wagon brakes. It’s two motors ran at 80 Volts and 35 Amperes each. 7,000 lbs load capacity, 130” wheelbase



22a           Runabout, $1,110

22b          Stanhope, $1,250

13a          High Speed Stanhope, $1,650

16a          Victoria-Phaeton, $1,750

20             Surrey, $2,800

21             Station Wagon, $3,500

2001A     Piano Wagon, $2,600

2004A     Ambulance, $2,800

2006E      Omnibus, 14-passengers, $3,000

2007A     Panel-Side Wagon


A Westinghouse motor was mounted under the seat of these cars. They were all chain drive.

Some Runabouts were sold to the Army as dispatch cars, one made a demonstration run from New York to Fort Leavenworth Kansas.

13 A Stanhope Special, 2-passengers, side lever, four speeds, 74” wheelbase, tube steel frame, 72-Volt battery, 2-hp 50-Volt motor suspended from frame, 2,100 lbs, $1,650

15 B Coupé, 2-passengers, 2-hp 50-Volt motor, 2,100 lbs, $2,200

16 A Victoria Phaeton, 2-passengers, 1,950 lbs, 68” WB, 28 cells, $1,750

20             Surrey, 28 cells, $2,985 

22 A Runabout, 67” wb, 1,650 lbs., $1,135

22 B Stanhope, 67” wb


Studebaker built two “carry-all” 12 passenger electric cars for the tunnel between the US Senate chambers and the Senate office building across the street. They had four cherry-wood seats facing each other on either side, with controls at the center. Powered by two 5-hp motors at 48 Volts.

The model 17’s featured interchangeable bodies.   

17-C Landaulet, folding front $2,300

17-B         Coupé, drop windows, $2,200

17-D        Victoria Phaeton, leather top & side curtains, $1,850

17-E Landaulet, standing front, $2,300 

22-C Stanhope, $1,500

22-G        Coupé, with Coupé & Summer tops, $1,850

22-F Coupé, $1,800

16-D        Victoria Phaeton, 2,000 lbs, 28 cell 11 plate battery, 68” wb,

17-B Coupé

22-A-C    Runabout, Stanhope

22-E Stanhope, 1,750 lbs, 67” wb, 24 cell battery,

2006-E    Omnibus, Fourteen-passengers, 5,500 lbs, two motors 20-Amperes at 80-Volts each, a battery of 40-cells in four groups, 10 mph

                  Omnibus, smaller, weighing 2,500 lbs  


13-A        Suburban Stanhope (Hi-speed). 73” wheelbase, 36-cell 6-plate battery, single chain drive, tube frame, 2,240 lbs, $1,650

15-A        Coupé, 2-passengers, 2,100 lbs, 28-cell 9 plate battery, 13 mph, $2,200

16-A        Victoria Phaeton, 2,000 lbs, 68” wheelbase, side lever steering,

16-D        Victoria Phaeton, 2-passengers, 28-cell battery, 68” wb, 1,890 lbs,  $1,750

17-B-D-E Coupé, Victoria Phaeton, or Landaulet. 71” wheelbase, 26-cell, 11 plates per cell battery

22-A        Runabout, 14 mph, 67” wheelbase, chain drive, band-brakes on armature shaft and rear axle, 1,400 lbs, 24 cell 11 P. V. Exide battery, $1,450

22-B Stanhope, 1,650 lbs, $1,250 with top

22-C Stanhope Phaeton, as A, $1,500

22-F Phaeton w/Coupé Top, 2-passengers, $1,800


17-B Coupé, 4-passengers, extension front, single 26-Ampere Westinghouse motor, 26 11-M. V. cells, 2,450 lbs, 71” wb, $2,200

17-C Landaulet, $2,300

17-D        Victoria Phaeton, 2-passengers plus child seat, $1,850

22-C Stanhope, 2 passengers, 67” WB, 24-cell 11 plate Exide battery, 16½ mph, $1,500

22 F          Coupé, 2-passengers, a Stanhope with removable Coupé top, 40-Volt 23-Ampere motor suspended from frame, brakes on the armature shaft and the differential, 31’ turning diameter, 67” wb, 24-cell 11 plate Exide battery, 1,990 lbs with the 300 lb top. The battery, with its trays, weighed 775 lbs.

22-G        Coupé, removable top for summer


The Electric controller lever now had a spring loaded top speed position, as it engaged a field shunt and was intended to be used briefly. 30” wheels, the 17s had cushion or pneumatic tires and were center chain drive, the 22s had pneumatic tires and twin side-chain drive.

17-D        Victoria, 74” wb, $1,475

17-B Coupé, 74” wb, $1,750

17-E Landaulet, $1,850

22 A Runabout,  67” wb, 53” track, $900

22 C Stanhope, $950

22 F          Coupé,    $1,200

22 G Coupé, $1,850


The last year for Studebaker electrics. The wheelbase was increased from 71” to 74” on all models, and the bodies were interchangeable.

17-K Coupé, 4-passengers, $1,750

17-E Landaulet, 3-passengers,

17-D        Phaeton, 4-passengers,


1,841 electric cars were made before Studebaker focused solely on Gasoline cars.

Studebaker also made electric trucks of 800, 1,500, 2,500, 4,000, 7,000, and 10,000 pound capacity.

         Studebaker built bodies for the Flanders Electric until 1915.


Sturges            1895-1898     

Sturges Electric Motor Cycle Co. Chicago, IL

Harold Sturges got the Morrison car from the American Battery Co after it was used to demonstrate their batteries at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. To capitalize on the publicity from entering the car in the 1895 Chicago Thanksgiving Day race, he campaigned it all over the Midwest, attempting to finance production of similar vehicles. Sturges had similar problems getting traction with investors as the car had in the Chicago snow. Eventually discouraged, Sturges sold the car and went to the Klondike, looking for fortune the old fashioned way.


Sunbeam         1935-1940     

Sunbeam Motor Car Co Ltd, Wolver-Hampton, England 



Swan                1897-1898     

Elieson Lamina Accumulator Syndicate Ltd. Camden Town, London N, England.

A battery company

A bicycle based quadra-cycle with a narrower front track


Synnestvedt            1903-1908

Synnestvedt Machine Co 4117-4119 Liberty Ave. Pittsburg, PA

Heavy wagons with chain drive to the rear wheels by countershafts. Wheel steering with pivots close to wheels, 3-10 hp motor.

Opera Bus,               10-passenger, 3,500 lbs bus, surrey top, battery under front hood



Opera Bus, 8-passengers plus two in front, 3,500 lbs, four speeds to 13-mph.

Tonneau, 7' wheelbase, 5-passengers, front and rear entrance, 2,400 lbs, 4 speeds to 18 mph, canopy top available.

G      Stanhope with top, 80-volt battery, 8-hp motor, 2,500 lbs, 75” wb

Delivery Wagon, 2,000 lb capacity, four speeds to 13 mph, 40-mile range.

Delivery wagon, 1,000 lb capacity, on Tonneau chassis


Syracuse          1899-1903

Syracuse Automobile Co., Syracuse, NY

Mostly Trucks         See Van Wagoner





Tate                  1912-1914     

Tate Electric Ltd, Walkerville, Ontario, Canada

R. A. Roadster, 30 mph, $2,700


Coupé, wheel steering

T. A. Delivery Truck


Thompson               1901-1902

Andrew C. Thompson, Plainfield, NJ

   Another little 2-passenger Runabout, center tiller steering, motor on rear axle, bicycle wheels, monocle headlight, with two battery options


Thomson & Lemp  1897       

Lynn, MA

6-passenger carriage with one bench facing forward and two in back facing from either side. ¾ elliptical springs in front, and tiller steering.


Thorn, (W. & F.)     1909

   19 Great Portland St, London W, England


Thresher Electric             1900       

Thresher Electric Co, Dayton, OH

Manufacturer of electric dynamos and motors.

         Trap,        4-passengers dos-a-dos, 2 motors on the frame driving ring gears at the rear wheels, center tiller steering, body and battery sprung above the frame.


Thrige              1909-1918     

Thomas B. Thrige AS,     Odense, Denmark



Thrupp & Maberly         1896                

425 Oxford Street, London W, England

A carriage builder that made some electric conversions

A very horse-carriage style Victoria, with the driver high up in front, made in small numbers


Thompson               1901-1902      Plainfield, New Jersey


Thompson-Houston       1910       

British Thompson-Houston Co, England

A hybrid truck


Thury               1904-1908     

Compagnie de l’Industrie Electrice et Mecanique, Geneva, Switzerland.

Parallel hybrid. The car had a shunt wound motor, which suggests regenerative braking.


Tiffany             1913-1914

Flint, MI, Pontiac, MI

Le Roy Pelletier took over the Flanders Electric car Company and, with the help of Don McCord, made two models under the name Tiffany. After a brief time he got permission to use Flanders name again, but sales were poor. One of the models was highly styled & black widow like, it looked a lot more interesting than the Flanders.

Deluxe (rear drive Coupé),             4-passengers, 100” wb, 30 cell Willard battery, Wagner motor, $2,500

Mignon,  priced at $750


Torbenson               1902-1904     

Torbenson Gear Inc, NY (formerly V. V. Torbenson Co Newark, NJ).

Torbenson built an early trans-axle in a single case, for gas or electric cars. Torbenson Gear was part of the foundation of the current Eaton Corporation.  

11/24/04, He entered his electric in an Eagle Rock, NJ hill climb.


Tribelhorn              1902-1919     

1909, Société Anonyme Tribelhorn, Olten, Switzerland

A. Tribelhorn & Co., Feldbach, Switzerland

         Albert Tribelhorn

The Tribelhorn brand was dropped in 1919.  

Tribelhorn made very sturdy electric trucks ranging from one to five tons, along with other commercial vehicles; postal delivery, milk trucks (one model could be driven from outside the cab), baggage carts, heavy & light tows, airport service vehicles.

Many of the vehicles had two-speed drive axles for steep hills. Tribelhorn also held a hybrid truck patent.

The majority of sales were to Swiss government agencies.  

1902        2-passenger front wheel drive prototype

1906        Passenger car production began; the heavier cars had bodies by Geissberger of Züric, in the faux radiator gasoline style.

                  Doctors car

                  Trap, 4-passengers vis-à-vis

1907        Hotel bus

1908        Victoria, 4-passengers, driver in front

1912        Six models



                  Landaulet, 6-passengers

1913        Truck, 2-ton postal delivery truck, driver standing at the front, rubber tires.

Both the trucks and the tricycles got a 12-month lease from the Swiss post office. The vehicles were successful and they became a steady client.

1914        Convertible Coupé, 2-passengers

1914-1929      Elektro-Tank, a tricycle for postal delivery, steel tube top with fixed windshield and roof, cloth curtains. 6-hp motor, 100-150 kg load capacity.

1917-18  Demand grew in a gasoline-starved war economy. Triblehorn built a new factory at Altstetten (outside of Zürich).

1918                 Some later passenger cars had bodies by Geissberger that featured a faux radiator hood, but the sales were weak. They had pneumatic tires and wheel steering.

         Nautilus, Touring car, 5-passengers, folding top, wheel steering, truck-like (high & short) hood.

         Sedan, like the Touring car but with a fully enclosed passenger compartment


100 Tribelhorn pleasure cars were registered in Switzerland.


Triumph Electric              1900-01 

Triumph Motor Vehicle Co, Chicago, IL



Trouvé             1881        Gustave Trouvé, Paris, France.

Trouvé was educated as an electrician but apprenticed with a clock maker.

Trouvé invented a motor based on the Siemens armature, but much improved in terms of size and weight to power. He primarily used the motor in boats.

In 1881, Trouvé electrified an English made Coventry-Rotary tricycle, which weighed 160 Kg with the rider. It had a 5 kg 1/10 hp, electric motor running at 12 Volts: on the road April 8, running up to 12 kmh. He demonstrated it at the Paris Electrical Exposition in November.

This vehicle was described in the science and electrical publications of the time, and was the likely inspiration for Ayerton, Riker, Brush, Fred Kimball, et. al.


Turbine            1904

Turbine Electric Truck Co, 135 Broadway, New York

Steam turbine with a generator and twin motor drive, Roberts water tube boiler, 14 hp De Laval turbine, spinning at 30,000 rpm, geared down 10-1, 300 lbs steam pressure, 80-Volt GE motors switched series/parallel, 6 mph, Hyatt roller bearings at all four wheels, 5-7 ton load


Turinelli & Piezza   1898-9             Milan, Italy


Twitchell          1900       

Walter Twitchell, St. Helena, CA

Pat #610,503 1898, motor carriage