Early Electric Vehicles E-F-G

Version 3.1


Electric car companies of the world, made before 1940, and listed alphabetically by brand name (when available).

Hobby cars after 1908 are generally omitted. Most makers of commercial electric vehicles are included, but not covered in detail.

The years given each company represent the span of electric car production, not necessarily the total life of the company. Many were previous horse-carriage, or bicycle companies, and several continued to make internal combustion cars post electric.

The majority of these listings were prototypes, and never produced in volume.


Eagle                1915-1917     

Eagle Electric Automobile Co Inc

169 Howard St., 14-18 Elizabeth St., Detroit, MI

1915        22 mph, 75 mile range, drum controller, lever steering, 110” wheelbase          


Eastman Electro Cycle    1897

         Eastman Automobile Co, Cleveland, OH.

In 1897, Henry F. Eastman commissioned Hector Jay Hayes, of the Wilson & Hayes Manufacturing Co, to make an all steel body for a one seat electric tricycle. It had three speeds forward and used a motor brake. Powered by a Willard battery. Henry went on to produce the Eastman Steamer.

The steel bodies proved to be more marketable than the vehicles, and in 1901, the company became the Eastman Metallic Body Co.


Eaton               1898-1900

         Eaton Electric Motor Carriage Co, Quincy, MA

         Howard F. Eaton electrical engineer

Oct 31, 1898, Eaton completed its first electric delivery wagon. Several of these were used by B. Altman & Co. in New York.

1899,       Carriages were made for a client in England.

1900,       Bankrupt by December

The motor was on the rear axle and had two armatures in the same housing, driving the rear axles by straight cut reduction gears. The battery was suspended below the running gear on half elliptic springs; the body was independently sprung.


ECC          1896-1899              

         Electric Construction Company Ltd.

         Bushbury, Wolverhampton, England

         9 New Broad Street, London.

A manufacturer of electric power generating and distribution equipment: also traction motors.

In 1896 Thomas Hugh Parker, son of the co-founder of Elwell-Parker, designed an electric dogcart for the company as a prototype. None of their road vehicle experiments got past the prototype stage.

                 Successor to Elwell-Parker Ltd.


Éclair                1907-1908     

         SA des Constructions d’Automobiles l’Éclair,                              Paris

Several gasoline cars and an electric prototype.


Eddy                 1885-1910     

Eddy Electric Manufacturing Co, Windsor, Connecticut

Founded August 31, 1885, with Arthur H. Eddy as president; Arthur D. Newton, treasurer; George T. Briggs, was the initial superintendent, succeeded by electrical engineer William R. C. Corson; with Oscar G. Arnurius, foreman. Some designs by Harry E. Heath

The company built dynamos, motors, and electro-plating equipment based on the Eddy patents. The company had a large exhibit at the 1893 Chicago Columbian Expo. Eddy made the (unreliable) moving sidewalk for the Expo. In 1902, they became affiliated with GE, and became part of GE in 1910. GE closed down manufacturing at the Windsor plant in 1928.

William Corson designed Eddy’s first automotive motor for the Columbia Mk I, electric car prototype made by the Pope Manufacturing Co in Hartford, CT around September of 1895. 

1900        Eddy made two styles of automobile traction motors rated at 1.52-3.34 hp, with 100% overload capability for 30 minutes, or 150% for 10 minutes. Momentary peaks to 500% could be tolerated. All motors were four-pole, and used twin brushes for every commutator segment.

The square case motors were designed for two-motor cars, and were supplied with a spur gear at the end of the armature shaft, to engage a ring gear at the drive wheels. The round case motors were designed for single-motor cars, they were available with solid or hollow armature shafts. The hollow armature shaft was for cars where a transverse motor drove a counter shaft with a balance gear (differential) to sprockets, for chain drive, or spur gears. The standard voltage was 72, compatible with 35-40 cell batteries. They would also make motors to the customer’s specifications. The motors were 79-82% efficient at rated Voltage.

The 1½ hp square type motor was rated at 37½ volts.      

Eddy advertised a complete rolling chassis, with a snap-action knife-blade controller.

Eddy motors were in the 1896 Columbia MK I, the 1897-98 Mk III, and the 1899-1900 Olds electric.


Edison           Although not a direct manufacturer of electric cars, Thomas Alva Edison owned many of them, and was an investor in the Lansden Company of Newark, New Jersey, a moderately successful electric truck company, which made a runabout for a couple of years. Edison was involved from its beginning in 1904, obtaining controlling interest in 1908. The founder, and principal designer, John Lansden Jr, left for the General Motors truck division in 1911, and Edison sold the company in January of 1912.

In 1895, TAE had his staff build an electric tricycle; it now resides in the Ford collection.

Edison knew what was needed was a better battery, not a better car. He possibly put more of his time and personal fortune into developing his alkaline rechargeable battery than the light bulb. The first version, introduced around 1903, was an embarrassing failure. The later version, introduced in 1910, was good enough to return his investment, but neither cheap enough, nor efficient enough, to save the electric car.


Edison Electric        1922       

Edison Electric Co. N. Y. NY

         This utility company made some trucks for their own use


Ehrlich             1918-1923     

Lambert & Mann Co, Chicago, IL

         3½-ton truck 


Ekstrom(er)             1905-1908              

         Ekstromer Accumulator Co,

         13 Walbrook, London E. C., England


Electra             1899-1900     

H. Krugen, Berlin, Germany


Electra             1913-1914     

         Electra Storage Battery Power Co, Chicago, IL.

         1913-1915      Electra Manufacturing Co.

                  11 Jones St. San Francisco, CA.

Incorporated at $250,000. Julius E. Haschke, patent holder and superintendant.


         Model C           2-pass Roadster, 750 lbs, with proprietary 2.5 hp Haschke motor, having sectional windings for speed control, 20-cell Haschke Battery, Bevel drive, 20 mph, Mercedes type hood with scuttle dash, on a 90” wb, for $750. Edison battery available

         Model D          Torpedo Roadster, 96-inch wheel-base


         Model C           Roadster, 2-Pass, $750

         Model D          Torpedo Roadster, 96” wb, $1,250

Electrette See Lansden and National

Electric Car Co of America             1888-1890

Philadelphia, PA

Rail Cars, George Herbert Condict (later with EVC)


Electriquette           1915 

Osborn Electriquette Mfg. Co Los Angeles, CA          (possibly Thomas O. Osborn)

Electric Carriage and Wagon Co         1896-1897

66 Broadway, NY, with a garage at 140 W. 39th St.    

Founded by Henry G. Morris and Pedro G. Salom in January 1896. Capital of $300,000, was mostly from Electric Storage Battery Co owners W. W. Gibbs and Isaac L. Rice. The purpose was to build and run electric taxicabs based on their Electrobat II.

Directors; Issac L. Rice, William Warren Gibbs, William Halls Jr., Richard B. Hartshorne, P. Lewis Anderson, Henry G. Morris, & Pedro G. Salom.

The little fleet had a dozen Hansom cabs and one Brougham, built by the Charles S. Caffrey Co of Camden, New Jersey. Each used an Electric Storage Battery Co Chloride battery, and a pair of Lundell motors. They had rear-wheel steering, and front-wheel drive, with wire wheels. They announced the opening of business in January of 1897 with two vehicles ready for service. These cabs were run with some success in Lower Manhattan from March of 1897 (after a delay related to city licensing) fielding 12 cabs with drivers and a staff of six at the charging station. Rice took over on September 27, 1897 and re-named it The Electric Vehicle Co; He added 14 new cabs of more robust construction, with metal disc wheels.

Hansom Cab            2,500 lbs. two 1½ hp Lundell motors drove inside-toothed ring gears at the front wheels by spur gears on the motor shafts, with three-speeds forward and one in reverse, up to 15 mph. A 70 Ampere-hour ESB battery weighing 800-900 lbs was boxed in a slide-in case, which made automatic connection with contacts in the body. 43 & 32-inch wire wheels, with steel rims and pneumatic tires, riding on ball bearings. The much smaller rear wheels were used for steering, with offset axles so that the pivot center was directly over the wheel center. This allowed a very tight turning radius and very little road-shock feedback though the steering lever. The doors could be opened and closed by the driver from his seat high up behind the passengers. Communication between passenger and driver was by means of a speaking tube. To get the drivers attention, a whistle, blown by a rubber squeeze bulb, was mounted in a plug at the end of the tube. The road at night was faintly illuminated by incandescent carriage lamps, as was the passenger compartment. An electric bell was mounted under the footboard to alert pedestrians and cyclists without frightening horses.


Brougham               Put into the fleet August of 1897. The driver sat over the battery, which sat over the front drive wheels. It was propelled by two 2-HP Lundell motors running at up to 900 rpm. The two passengers sat to the aft in a nice glassed in compartment, with doors, featuring drop-down windows, at either side. The motors were mounted to the axle at one side, and suspended by springs from the body on the other, driving 36” wheels, with 3-speeds forward. Carrying 44 ESB cells, it would go 15 miles at 15 MPH. It seems only one was made, and it must have been very popular in the rain.


Electric Carriage & Garage             1902         England


Electric Landau Co.                  1909

Magara, Westminister, London, S. W., England


Electric Motive Power Co       Ltd   1909

         Magara, Westminister, London S. W., England

Electric Vehicle Company

1897-1899, 100 Broadway New York, NY

1900, Office & Factory, 1 Laurel at corner of Park St. Hartford, Connecticut


         Cab Companies: franchised for entire states.

New York Electric Vehicle Transportation Co. sales & show rooms, 541 Fifth Avenue, N. Y. NY

Pennsylvania Electric Vehicle Transportation Co 250-256 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, PA

Illinois Electric Vehicle Transportation Co, 173 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL

New England Electric Vehicle Transportation Co, 541 Tremont St. Boston, MA (New England States)

Washington Electric Vehicle Transportation Co. Panorama Building, Fifteenth St. & Ohio Avenue, Washington, DC

New Jersey Electric Vehicle Transportation Co, 100 Broadway, New York

Mexican Electric Vehicle Co, Juan de Latran No.7 Mexico City, DF


The Electric Vehicle Company (EVC) was Isaac Rice’s new name for the Electric Carriage and Wagon Co, after he took over in September of 1897. Rice was running the Electric Storage Battery Company (ESB) when he bought out the rest of Morris & Salom’s nascent New York taxi business. This put him on both sides of negotiating the battery contract between ESB and the EVC. As he was the principal owner of the EVC, and only had a small stake in the ESB Company, the contract favored the EVC with a price ceiling locked in. He grew the company with 87 more cabs, using Westinghouse motors.

The business cartel, which came to be known as the “lead cab trust,” controlled the Electric Storage Battery Co, with the intent of dominating battery electric streetcar and motor cab business’. They were forced to buy Rice’s EVC for the “sweetheart” battery contracts EVC had with ESB. In late 1899, they made Rice a very generous offer, buying shares that had recently been valued at $20.00 each for $140.00.

Rice remained as President of the ESB Company for a while. He spent some of the money buying the Electric Launch and Navigation Co. (Elco), Electro Dynamic, and the Holland Torpedo Boat Company, to form The Electric Boat Company, a submarine maker, which eventually became General Dynamics, a major defense contractor.

The group controlling EVC & ESB, were Wall St. financiers William Collins Whitney, Anthony N. Brady, and Thomas F. Ryan in collaboration with Philadelphia financiers Peter A. B. Widener, and William L. Elkins, et al. These men had become very wealthy forming monopolies, including; coal-gas utilities for lighting, tobacco, and streetcars. They hoped for similar success by creating a motorized taxicab monopoly, first in New York, then in all major cities.

In 1898 electricity seemed the best choice for cabs: electric motors were powering their streetcars with brilliant success. The ESB Company held the American rights to the C. Fauré, C. Payen, A. Marcheney, and C. Brush battery patents. These encompassed worldwide rights to the pasted plate lead acid cell, which had little competition in terms of capacity. ESB was suing other battery companies over infringement. They intended to buy out, or stamp out, all competition. Woods cabs, with Willard batteries, helped keep them from total monopoly.

EVC held stock in the cab operating companies they licensed in various cities, with active management of their flagship “Electric Vehicle Transportation Company” of Manhattan. They also acquired A. A. Pope’s Columbia Motor Carriage Company, and several others, to make the thousands of vehicles they thought they would need.

1898        April, EVC secured a lease on the old Armory at 1684 Broadway, and hired George Herbert Condict to design and manage this new headquarters for the cab business, in anticipation of quadrupling fleet size the next spring.

1899         Beginning January, 100 new cabs were put on the streets of New York

                  February 21, the Electric Vehicle Transportation Co was established as the operating company for EVC cabs in New York.

April, EVC merged with Pope’s car division, Columbia Motor-Carriage, as the Columbia Automobile Company. In May it was reorganized again as the Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company.

                  June, 100 cab bodies were ordered from Studebaker, of South Bend, IN.

August 17, Isaac L. Rice resigned from the presidency of ESB, turning it over to George Day (from Pope).

1900,       June,        Capitol stock was raised from $12 million to $18 million for the purpose of cashing out the remaining Pope interests, and buying the New Haven Carriage Co. The whole enterprise was reorganized under the umbrella of the Electric Vehicle Company.

President, Robert McAllister Lloyd; VP, George Day

                  December, EVC purchased Riker with $2 million in EVC stock: for his brand and New Jersey manufacturing plant. Shortly after Andrew Riker joined EVC, H. Hayden Eames left, along with head engineers Hiram P. Maxim, and William Kennedy. Riker, who considered himself the new chief engineer, was not easy to work with.

1901                 December, EVC closed the Riker factory.

1902                 January, EVC paid the final assessment of $580,000 on its holding of the New York Transportation Co. The operating fleet had grown to 616 vehicles, both cabs and busses.

         By the end of 1902 most of the regional taxicab operators had failed.

1903                 John Milton Budlong succeeded George Day as President (through 1907).     


The EVC Cabs

1897                 Hansom the first EVC model cab was of more robust construction then the EC&W ones, with steel disc wheels. The four-pole Westinghouse motors were rated at 2.5 HP each. One was applied to each front wheel while the rear wheels steered (as before). The battery was bumped up to 88 Volts with a weight of 1,672 lbs, in a cab weighing 3,885 lbs.

1897                 Brougham,      on a similar chassis, with the driver out in front of 2-passengers in the enclosed cab.

For the later cabs, see Columbia.



Electric            1922-1924     

Automobile-und Akkumulatoren-Bau GmbH, Berlin, Germany


Electrical Undertakings Ltd. 1899       

         Miller St. Camden Town, London

4-passengers, with a tonneau behind the folding top.


Electricars       1919-1944

Electricars Ltd. England

         Electric trucks

Electricar 1920-1924     

Couaillet St. Ouen, Seine, France          


Electrique Société Anonyme l’Usines   1909

116 Rue de Gravel, Levallois-Perret, Seine, France


Electrobat              1894-1896

Morris & Salom, Philadelphia, PA.

Pedro G. Salom was an electrochemist and Henry G. Morris a mechanical engineer. They had backgrounds in battery streetcars, and teamed up to make battery road vehicles. Battery streetcars were in limited use to extend the range of low traffic trolley lines, where putting in electrical distribution infrastructure was not profitable. The first Electrobat (I) was a heavy, impractical test platform, with center pivot “fifth wheel” steering up front. The Electrobat II was a radical new light design, which made an impressive showing at America’s first road race, at Chicago in 1895. They made a couple more prototypes that were too light for practical use.

In January of 1896 they announced plans to build as many as forty vehicles “for service in parks and delivery wagons,” as they did not see much potential for pleasure cars, primarily due to lack of electric power distribution infrastructure. Only limited areas of major cities had central power.

In 1897 Morris & Salom built a dozen Hansom cabs and one Brougham, based on the Electrobat II, as the Electric Carriage & Wagon Co, before being taken over by Isaac Rice of the Electric Storage Battery Co, who was a backer from the start.

1894        Type I,     (called “Electrobat I ” in retrospect)

Put on the road August 31, 1894

         Tonneau Four-six passengers, two on the front bench, and dos-à-dos in back, 4,250 lbs with a 1,600 lb, 60 cell, ESB Co battery of 100 A h capacity, designed to deliver up to 7.6 kW. The power was delivered to a 3-hp GE motor rated up to 300% overload. The 300 lb motor was geared to a countershaft, with differential, driving the rear wheels by spur and ring gears. They claimed it went 50-100 miles per charge at up to 15 mph. It had steel tires, on wood wheels. A steering wheel rotated a 30-inch horizontal center-pivot wheel (with ball bearings in a ring, like a lazy Susan) that turned the front axle, by means of a pinion gear engaged with a curved rack. This design had major problems with steering feedback when either wheel hit an obstruction. Other than the countershafts and differential, it was mechanically and conceptually very similar to the Morrison car that was prominent at the 1893 Columbian Exposition, though he had learned the flaws of center pivot steering with his first attempt.

1895        Type II, 2 or 4-passengers (removable rear seat). This vastly improved vehicle weighed 1,650 lbs, including a 669 lb battery. Powered by two 1½ hp Lundell motors running on 96 Volts. The ESB Co battery had a 50-Ampere hour capacity with 48 cells in hard rubber jars, said to run 25 miles per charge at 20 MPH.

A controller under the seat, turned by a hand wheel, switched four battery sets from parallel to series, for three speeds forward and one in reverse.

This model steered by the rear wheels, each of which had independent coil spring suspension, which was a bit bouncy compared to leaf springs before shock absorbers (snubbers) were invented. The wheels were turned by means of what looked like a “D” shaped shovel handle, pivoting at the floor, which the driver moved fore and aft. The front drive wheels were of wider track (44.2” vs. 36.1”) and diameter (39.6” vs. 28.4”). The wooden wheels were shod with pneumatic tires. One of the first motor vehicles so equipped.

The red and black body was designed and built by the Charles S. Caffrey Carriage Co, across the Delaware River from Philadelphia, in Camden, New Jersey.

The Electrobat II won the gold medal for best “Motocycle” in America’s first automobile race, on a freezing Thanksgiving Day, in 1895, at Chicago. Although a Duryea won the race, averaging just over 7 mph, with a Benz Velo arriving second. As with the other contestants, the Electrobat II never finished; due to range limits enhanced by the freezing weather, but the judges were very impressed by how well it looked and performed.

In 1896, on a dry dirt horse track in Rhode Island, this same car, and a Riker Electric, beat six of the next generation Duryeas, in a series of 5-mile sprints. Shorter distances in mild weather favored electrics.

Type III    Crawford Road Wagon

         2-passengers, with very little in the way of a body. The car, with battery, weighed 1,180 lbs. It was Built by the Crawford Wheel and Gear Co of Hagerstown, Maryland. Two Lundell motors drove the front wire-wheels by spur and ring gears. The entire rear axle pivoted for steering, the rear axle was held in place by a single reach rod at the center. This simple center pivot rear wheel steering was used on a later taxi.

Type IV    Buggy

         Two motors on the rear axle with pinion gears driving sprocket-like crown gears. The vehicle was very light, about 800 lbs, with a minimal piano box style body. It used bicycle technologies such as a steel tube frame and light wire wheels. The front wheels pivoted at their centers (on the vertical axis). It steered by means of a vertical lever pivoting at the right frame member. Simple wagon brakes on the rear tires.


Electrocar        1922       

Electrocar Corporation, New Brunswick, NJ

Designed by Joseph A. Anglada

Taxi Cab, five-passengers and driver, sixty to seventy mile range, quick-change battery system, 112” wheelbase. Two GE motors drove the rear wheels. They looked like a gasoline town cars, with faux radiators.       $2,975


Electrogenia            1903-1905     

De Champrobert & Cie Levallois, Seine, France

         Hybrid Transmission 1,430 lbs, live rear axle, 75% power transmission claimed vs. 50% for mechanical transmission.

Electromobile 1901-1920,

Hertford Street, London W1, England.

Most vehicles were built for in-house livery service,

1901       Greenwood & Batley Ltd. of Leeds made electrical equipment, including motors, generators, and lead acid cells. The motors were based on the patents of French inventor Camille Contal. They made an agreement with the Electromobile Co Ltd. to construct Electric Vehicles for them to put in service. The works at Leeds made complete running platforms, which were shipped to the Electromobile works in the borough of Lambeth, where the bodies were mounted, having been brought in from various coachbuilders. Early models had an elaborate steering gear devised by Contel.

1903        A chassis shown at the Crystal Palace had a single two-pole series motor driving a differential on a live axle having a two-stage reduction gear set with double helical teeth, all enclosed. Expanding brake shoes in rear drums, Gallus non-slipping tread tyres, two electrical brakes, spring-loaded cutout switch, and a 42-cell battery.

1907        The Electromobile Co., Ltd. (managing director Theodore G. Chambers) set up a fully equipped garage in Mayfair to run a fleet of luxury electric carriages. The cars were of the outside-drive town-car style, steered by wheel. They were similar to the Krieger cabs.

There was a carriage entrance on Carrington Street, and a goods entrance on Brick Street at Piccadilly, with access to the basement. An entrance on Hertford Street gave access to the offices. The 350’ x 80’ concrete and steel building covered about a half acre, with three floors, from the basement to the roof, which had elevator access. Two hydraulic lifts, on rails, were available to easily replace the battery boxes slung under the chassis’. The vehicles were driven to the charging panels at the east end of the building if they were going back into service. If not, they were sent about the facility on wood wheeled dollies without a battery. Three hydraulic elevators with capacity for a vehicle up to 16’ long, could deliver a car to any of the three floors, and one of them went all the way to the roof, which could be used for washing vehicles in good weather. Repair & maintenance was done in the basement, which had a forge. There were thirty mechanic’s pits for access to the running gear. The basement was also where batteries were charged and washed.

There were three body types on the same chassis; a Laundalet, Brougham, and Victoria. Cars could be privately owned, or leased for a given period. At this time only electric motor vehicles were allowed in Hyde Park during popular hours.

The company was also selling delivery trucks and ambulances.

1908       British Electromobile became the British agents for Opel cars.


Brougham    Four passengers, with two swiveling and collapsible seats for the driver and a companion. A ventilator was in the roof, and the screened door windows could be opened. All windows were of beveled plate-glass. The interior had one Holophane roof light, and there was one cast aluminum taillight attached directly to the number plate. Two head lights and two side lights were fitted and controlled by switches on an instrument dash board of polished mahogany, which, In addition to the lamp switches, carried a flush Stewart speedometer, Stewart rim-wound clock, and a Weston model 241 Volt-ammeter. A Sangamo ampere-hour meter incorporated a differential shunt correcting the readings from charge to discharge. When the battery was fully charged, a switch attached to the main circuit breaker automatically stopped the charge.

The pressed steel frame narrowed at the front for a tighter turning radius. The front axle was suspended on semi-elliptic springs. The rear axle was suspended by platform springs with double shackles. Transmission was direct to the differential with double helical gears; ball bearings were fitted throughout. The motor developed 3-horse power and was of the double commutator series type, 1,600 revolutions per minute at 76 amperes, 96 volts. Speed control was by combination of lever and foot pedal. The hood and body were made of hammered aluminum sheets with invisible joints. All the fenders were domed. It was one of the first cars with a horn ring at the center of the steering wheel.

1917        A maker of “Buda” type trucks ½ to 6 tons. Theodore G. Chambers, managing director, H. L. Joly, chief engineer.

1919        Elmo        Limousine, enclosed body, faux radiator, body by Gill, 8.5 hp motor



Lafayette & Meldrum, Detroit, MI


Electromobile         1902       

National Vehicle Co. Indianapolis, IN.

A brand name, see National


Electromobile          1905-1908     

The American Electromobile Co, East Orange, NJ

1908, the American Electromobile Co, 1567 River St. Detroit, MI

Chas. W. Beaumont general manager, Andrew H. Green Jr., Frank B. Rae secretary-treasurer. Designed by Frank B. Rae. The enterprise fell apart after one vehicle

Electromobile          1908, 1909     

Electromobile Co Ltd, 7 Curzon, St. Mayfair, London W., England

Electromotion         1900-1909     

Société l’Electromotion, 54 Avenue Montaigne, Paris, France. Hart O. Berg

         The French licensee of Columbia/EVC


Elieson             1897-1898     

Elieson Lamina Accumulator Syndicate Ltd.

                 Camden Town, London N, England

Chaimsonovitz Prosper Elieson had some battery patents.

They made an electric bicycle based quadricycle called the Swan to demonstrate their battery.

See Swan

Ellis                  1900-1901

Triumph Motor Vehicle Co, Chicago, IL

A light open wagon


Elite                   1917-1923     

Elitwerke AG Zweigniederlassung, Berlin, Germany


Elmo                 1919       

British Electromobile Co Ltd

         See Electromobile


Elwell-Parker Ltd.   1882       

Wolverhampton, England

         Parker made a few innovative early prototype electrics. Became part of ECC.


Elwell-Parker              1898-1909 & 1919-1998       

The Elwell-Parker Electric Co.

       1076 Hamilton St. Cleveland, OH

Established July 6, 1893 in Cleveland by Alexander E. Brown as a division of The Brown Hoisting Machinery Co, to make motors and controllers for their dockside coal loaders, under Elwell-Parker Ltd Patents and methods. E-P merged with the Anderson Carriage Co in 1909 (maker of the Detroit Electric).

At the suggestion of Theodore A. Willard, of Willard Battery, Elwell-Parker started making series-wound low-voltage (24-84 Volts) high-current motors for battery-powered transportation around 1899. Buffalo (Babcock) and Baker were the first Clients. Others included, Columbus, Detroit Electric, Johnson-Hewitt, Parsons, and Strong & Rogers.

Morris S. Towson Joined the company in 1895 and was chief executive from 1907 until he handed the reins to his son around the Second World War. Towson also designed some electrical and mechanical components used in Detroit Electric cars, and some early E-P industrial vehicles. Towson’s family headed management until eventual liquidation in 1998.

1909        November, Elwell-Parker became part of the Anderson Electric Car Co.  As the two companies had similar capitol value, and management was shared, it was more of a merger than a buyout. It gave the Detroit Electric exclusive use of the low speed E-P motors, which didn’t need a second speed reduction as most others did. E-P returned to independence from Anderson/Detroit Electric when the Company split up in 1919. Although it was proposed that E-P move their factory to Detroit, and even that Detroit Electric move to Cleveland, the factories remained independent in most practical terms. The motors, and controllers were made in Cleveland, and most of the rest was made at the Anderson factory campus in Detroit.

Between 1910 and 1919, Elwell-Parker motors were used exclusively in Detroit Electric cars and trucks. Baker and others switched to higher speed GE or Westinghouse motors, which required a second set of speed reduction gears (other than at the differential), or a silent chain.

From 1911 to 1998 Elwell-Parker was a significant maker of electric material-handling vehicles. Clyde E. Cochran was the principle designer of early Elwell-Parker industrial vehicles.


EMP                  1896-1900     

Electric Motive Power Co, Balham, London SW, England

1896        A prototype horse carriage conversion

1897        Victoria, 4-passengers, 2 hp motor, solid tires

                 Dogcart, 4-passengers, 5 hp motor

                 Tricycle,  2-hp        


Empire Electric Vehicle Co.    1914

Wilmington, Delaware

Incorporated May of 1914 with $200k of capital stock “To manufacture and deal in electric vehicles”


Enegie Électro-Mécanique             1909

         2 Rue Delaunay, Suresnes, Seine, France


Evans               1903-05 

F. S. Evans, Detroit, MI


Ewbank Electric      1914-1915     

Ewbank Electric Transmission Co, Portland, OR



Fabriqué Nationale d’Armes de Guerre         1901

         Herstal, Belguim

         Two hybrids designed by Jenatzy, 60 hp engine w/40 hp motor


Fairchild          1912

Fairchild Electric Vehicle Co, Brooklyn, NY

F. K. Fairchild, M. D. Fairchild, and A. E. King         . Incorporated at $50,000     

Fanning   1901-1903

(F. J.) Fanning Automobile Co, Chicago, IL

         Runabout at 1902 Chicago auto show


Fiedler             1899-1900     

Berliner Electromobil-und Accumulatoren-Gesellschaft

Firestone Columbus                See Columbus


Fischer             1898-1903      Fischer Motor Vehicle Co

         Hoboken, NJ

                  A bus and truck maker.

1903        they made a series hybrid Omnibus and truck, with a 10 hp gas engine driving a 5 kW dynamo wired to a pair of 5 hp motors. They carried a 50-cell battery. The bus got 2 miles per gallon and featured a heated passenger compartment.

Fischer             1898-1899     

Fischer Equipment Co, 340-342 Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL

         Fischer built bodies for American Electric, and then made the Woods electric cars. They also made some commercial vehicles under the Fischer brand.

1898        Delivery Wagon, built for the Robert Simpson Ltd. Toronto, a department store. Two motors driving ring gears on the rear wheels by spur gears, 14 mph

1899        Three vehicles for the US signal corps, $8,000 each.

                  Express Wagon       built for United States Express Co.

Fischer             1912-1913 

Westautohaus Alex Fischer & Co, Berlin, Germany

         Electric & Hybrid cars & trucks

Flanders Electric  1911-1915

         1911-1912, The Flanders Manufacturing Co (a part of EMF), Pontiac, MI

         1912-1913 Flanders Motor Co (very briefly, the United States Motor Co)

         1913-1915 (E. le Roy Pelletier)

7th Floor, Dodge Building, Jefferson Avenue, Detroit

The New York sales office was at 1932 Broadway, with W. R. Chandler as representative.        


The original company was a consolidation of the Grant & Wood Manufacturing Co (Chelsea), Pontiac Motorcycle Co, Pontiac Drop Forge Co, Pontiac Foundry Co, and the Vulcan Gear Works. Capitalized @ $2.5 million, some capitol was from J. B. Book Jr.

Named after the company’s director, and machine tool wizard, Walter Flanders.

Flanders set up the tooling for the first model “T” Ford, and was the “F” in the E-M-F Corporation, which built gasoline automobile platforms for Studebaker.

E. le Roy Pelletier talked Flanders into making an electric car as part of the Flanders product line. Studebaker was dropping their line of electrics and Pelletier saw a niche for a new electric, done his way.

1910        British electrical engineer Warren Noble designed The Flanders Electric in the summer of 1910.

         He talked Sangamo into designing a special “Distance Dial” meter with the boxy mercury motor parts under the seat.

1912        The car was launched with 200 full-page newspaper ads across the country.

Pelletier hired C. Coles Phillips to illustrate a masterful two-page color centerfold in Life Magazine. The side-view fade-away style hid the fact that the car had virtually no hoods; it was a rather strange looking glassed-in box on wheels.

On August first, a Flanders Colonial was the Pathfinder car for the Glidden Tour from Detroit to New Orleans; it made the entire scouting trip under its own power, without a breakdown.

December 28, Pelletier and Paul Smith (sales manager) announced they had severed ties with the Flanders Motor Car Co; recently acquired by the United States Motor Co.

1913 The new owners were not interested in the electric, so Pelletier took it independent, and kept it going another year. Before getting Walter Flanders’ permission to use his name, he briefly called the car a Tiffany. Up to this point some 600 Flanders had been sold.

The compound-wound Timmerman designed Wagner motor had the worm gear cut into the armature shaft, the armature windings and commutator were on a sleeve keyed to the shaft. This was mounted in ridged alignment to the front of the rear axle at 45º from level. Flanders bought the British design and methodologies (grinding & heat treating) for the worm gear drive.

The platforms were made at the Pontiac Michigan Flanders factory, the bodies were made entirely of wood, with 18 coats of paint & varnish.

Flanders Electrics were built on a 100” wheelbase; they came with custom Willard batteries using special vent caps.

The Flanders was technically advanced, but too expensive and unusual looking for market success.

July 17, 1916 Flanders Electric went out of business.

Walter Flanders went on to produce the Maxwell, which led to the Chrysler.     


         Colonial Coupé, with worm drive, Wagner motor, and a 24-cell battery. Made the first year in small numbers as presentation cars, $1,775    


         Colonial Coupé, seating was 5-6 passengers vis-à-vis. With sash-less French ground-plate-glass windows. They were painted Napoleon blue with broad white stripes defining the bodylines. The bright work was triple nickel-plated. The cars were trimmed in either grey striped Bedford cord, royal blue broadcloth, or hand buffed leather. The 100” wheelbase chassis was enameled and utilized Silicon Manganese steel springs in hammock style suspension. The Coupé was advertised to have a top speed of 24 mph, with a 24-cell 140 A h battery, in specially designed cases under the seats. A Sangamo Ampere-hour meter was standard. $1,775

         Victoria, 4-passengers, an open version of the Coupé.


         Colonial Coupé, 5-passengers, 120-mile range at 12 mph (4th speed), 6-speeds forward, worm drive, 30 cell battery, “hammock” suspension. Price of the 1913 model, as of June 1912, $2,250

         Victoria, 4-passengers, $2,200


         K      Colonial Coupé, 4-passengers, lever steering & controller handle, 3 hp Wagner motor rigidly mounted to rear axle, 60 Volt 135 A h Willard battery 20 cells in front and 10 cells at the rear, 75-100 mile range, six speeds to 24 mph, 9.8-1 Worm drive semi-floating rear axles, 9¾” ground clearance, 100” wb,  $1,750. Standard painting had Napoleon blue panels with black frame elements and chassis.

Ford         1913-1914     

Ford Motor Company, Detroit, Michigan

Ford and Edison collaborated on a pair (more are rumored) of electric prototype platforms (no bodies), built by Samuel Wilson, with wiring by Alexander Churchwood (from the automotive electric lamp company Grey & Davis).

Edsel Ford supervised the project. The results were not encouraging, as they were neither better nor cheaper than electrics already on the market.

For Christmas gifts, in 1913, Henry Ford bought two 1914 model 47 Detroit Electrics, one for Clara (her fourth) and one for the Edisons.

Foster              1899-1900     

Foster & Co Rochester, NY.

Two models, chain drive, 1,000 lbs, 75-100 mile range claimed.


Fourgon Électrique 1898

Des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Paris

Fire Trucks

FRAM               1906-1911     

Società Anomina F.R.A.M, Genoa, Italy


Fritchle       1904-1917

         The Fritchle Automobile and Battery Company        

         1904-1910, 1449-55 Clarkson St, Denver, CO

         1911-1917, 1510–30 Clarkson St, Denver, CO

Oliver Parker Fritchle was a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, and Ohio State. He moved to Colorado in 1899 to work in mining.

Fritchle started making lead batteries of his own design. In 1903, he set up a full service carriage house for electric cars, charging the batteries at night and delivering the cars clean and ready every morning. In 1911 his enterprises were housed in a large building called the “Mammoth Gardens,” which had been a roller skating rink.

Fritchle was not impressed by his customers cars, so he started building his own. The early chain-drive cars were made almost entirely at the factory, even the motors, controllers, and chain sprockets. The cars were built to order.

October 31, 1908, Fritchle drove one of his Victorias from Lincoln Nebraska to New York; about 1,800 miles over the chosen route, in 29 days, including 9 days spent stopping to demonstrate the car. There were no mechanical failures; just one blown tire and the brakes were relined.

About 300 cars were made by the end of 1913.


                  Torpedo Race Car, a prototype

1905        Production began slowly, with fewer than 50 cars made by the end of 1907.


                 Victoria Phaëton, 44” wide seat, 80” wheelbase with 50” track, 28-cell 800 lb battery, single chain drive to rear axle, eight speeds to 25 mph, regenerative braking, hickory reach rods, 100 mile range in third speed, painted blue, unless another color was requested.

                 Coupé, 4-passenger, 64 Volts, 60-90 mile range, 84” wb, $2,800

                 Roadster, 4-passenger, two under cape top +two in rear, 100” wb, 25 mph, 100 mile range at 3rd speed, single chain drive, faux radiator, side lever steering, $2,000.


         Shaft Drive, pneumatic tires

                  Victoria, 28 cells

                  Torpedo Roadster, 28 cells

                  Torpedo Touring

                  Coupé, 32-cells


         Four models with proprietary 4-hp motors, 32-cell batteries, and bevel drive. Fritchle used reach rods between the front and rear axles; allowing full elliptic springs all around. Five speeds forward and three in reverse.

                  Roadster 4-passengers, with four doors, two bucket seats in the front and a bench in the rear.     

                  Runabout, $2,400

                  Coupé 94” wheelbase

                  Brougham, new model, 5-passengers, 102” wb,  $3,600.

                  Delivery, half-ton, chain-drive


         Worm-gear shaft-drive with was put in all vehicles. 32 cell 13-plate battery. Ash frame reinforced with spring steel. Aluminum clad bodies. Full elliptic springs.

                  Torpedo Roadster, 3-passengers with child seat, 96” wb, $2,400

                           Torpedo Touring Car     4-passenger, 104” wb, side lever steering, leather upholstery, $2,500

                  Colonial Coupé, 4-passenger, 96” wb, 34”x3½“ tires, patented five speed drum controller, 20 mph, Weston 240 meter, 2,700 lbs, $3,200    

                  Extension Coupé 4-passengers, 88” wb, $3,000

                  Colonial Brougham, 5-passengers, fore drive, 104” WB, 34”x4” tires, center headlight and two carriage lights, 64 Volt 150 A h Fritchle battery $220 replacement, fixed rain shield, Schwarz (Philadelphia) artillery wheels, $3,600

                  Delivery 1,000 lb capacity, bevel gear shaft drive, 32 cell 160 Ah proprietary battery weighing 900 lbs. Armored wood frame with elliptic springs and annular ball bearings at all wheels.


At the end of 1914 there were 160 Fritchles registered in Colorado, the most of any brand of electric car. There were 8,418 Fords, 169 Stanley Steamers, and 79 Detroit Electrics.


                  Torpedo Roadster, $2,400

                  Torpedo Touring Car, 4-Pass, $2,500

                 Extension Coupé, 4-passenger, 88” wb,                            $3,000

                 Colonial Coupe, $3,200

                  Colonial Brougham, $3,600 


                  Torpedo Roadster

                 Torpedo Touring Car


                 Colonial Brougham, 5-passengers, 2,800 lbs, 104” wheelbase, $3,600


         With patented controller, a key lock shut off the main power, and a battery warmer was optional.

                  Victoria Phaëton

                  Coupé, 4-Passengers

                  Runabout Stanhope

                  Torpedo Runabout, 2-Passengers

                  Roadster, 4-passengers

                  Commercial Truck, 1,000 lbs.


Fulgura                     1907-1909     

Bergmann Elektrizitätatswerk AG,        Berlin, Germany

The works manufactured a range of electrical power equipment; they briefly made electric vehicles.

         Cars & vans

Fuller Electric          1914       

Fuller Electric Car Co, 1255 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

         E. Grand Blvd. & Russell Street, Detroit

         Frank E. Kirby, president; Rodolphus Fuller, designer

         Trackless street cars (omnibuss’), 60 passengers on two decks. Hybrid, with 4-cylinder engine driving a dynamo, and a motor at each wheel



Gallia                1904-1915     

La Société L’Électrique, Ste. Paris, France

Bernard M. Dufresne and Armand de Gantaut Biron

         A French car very similar to the Columbia outside drive Brougham, with two motors driving the rear wheels by spur and ring gears.


         Landaulet        body by Kellner

         Galliette           a runabout with a Rothschild body



Gallia Electric 1905-1908     

Gallia Electric Carriage Co, 152 W. 38th St. N. Y. NY

         Outside drive Landaulets with twin motors at the rear wheels. Brewster made some American bodies.

         They had pressed steel frames, a 90” wheelbase, and two-motor drive by ring gears on the rear wheels, 8 speeds, 4,000 lbs, $5,000

         1907        Laudaulet




Gault                1908-1916     

Fleming Auto, 8 Dickson, Ontario, Canada.

         Car dealer Eddy Fleming; with Moffat St. Clair

1914        Series hybrid with electric brakes, electric tire pump & electric vulcanizer. It was said to drive 10-15 miles as a pure electric. It had a unique two cylinder two-stroke engine running at 600 rpm driving a 5 kW generator. The 48-volt battery was carried on ether side, outside of the frame rails. 5,000 lbs, 40 mph. It looked like a typical touring car.


Garrard & Blumfield      1894-1896

Raglan Works, Raglan Street, Hillfields, Coventry, Warwickshire, England.

Associated with the Raglan Anti-Friction Ball Co located in the same factory.

Several prototypes

Steel tube platform with a four-passenger body on coil springs. 24” wheels with pneumatic tires, ball bearings throughout. The car weighed 1,000 lbs. 13 mph.


Garret              1916-1930     

Richard Garrett & Sons, England.

A maker of steam trucks, they also made some electric trucks and trolleys


GEHA               1910-1917

Elektomobilekabrik Gibhardt & Harborn


Elitwerke AG Zweigniederlassung, Berlin, Schoneberg


GEM         1907-1909     

Ste’ Generale d’ Automobiles Electro-Mecaniques.

                 Pateaux, Seine, France



General Electric (GE, GEC)   

General Electric Co, Schenectady, NY

                 The GE we all know was formed in 1892.

Shoe manufacturer Charles A. Coffin put together a consortium to purchase the American Electric Co from Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston in 1883. He later bragged to Walter Baker & others that he had conned the partners out of the company for a fraction of its value, perhaps he renamed the new company Thomson-Houston Electric to atone.

They then purchased the Bently-Knight Electric Railway Co, the Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light Co, and, in 1889, the Brush Electric Co.

Also in 1889, Thomas A. Edison, under the guidance of Samuel Insull, and Edison’s longtime investment banker Henry Villard, formed the Edison General Electric Company by merging and recapitalizing, with financing by Deutsch Bank and Drexel-Morgan, various Edison related companies, including, the Edison Electric Light Co, Bergman & Co, and, later, the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Co.

In 1892 Coffin and J. P. Morgan led Wall Street consolidators to make a near monopoly ($21 million in sales for the combined companies compared with $5 million for Westinghouse) by merging Thompson-Houston with Edison General Electric, creating the General Electric Co.

Thomson-Houston had fewer assets than Edison General Electric, but was more profitable, as they had less research expense, and weren’t saddled by Edison’s $10 million “worth” of stock in various regional power companies, which was not very liquid as they produced little profit. Edison’s share of GE was diluted to 5% in common stock, with enough cash to pay off debts and pursue his newer interests. He kept the phonograph, kinetoscope, battery, and mining companies.

Villard, who went into negotiations thinking they were taking over Thomson-Houston, was cashed out for $5 million. The management of the new GE was all from the Thomson-Houston side of the merger. Only Edison’s personal secretary/manager Samuel Insull was invited to join the team, he declined and became president of Chicago’s Commonwealth Edison electric power company.

GE did not manufacture electric pleasure cars, other than a few prototypes in 1897-1898 called the Lemp (after professor Herman Lemp), the Thomson Wagonette, and a series hybrid in 1903. They did make the motors and controllers for many electric car manufactures. Exceptions were Detroit Electric (Elwell-Parker), Rauch & Lang (Hertner), and several that bought their motors from Westinghouse. Other motor makers whose product made it into electric cars included: Crocker-Wheeler, Eddy, Immisch, Lundell, Postel-Vinay, Riker, Roth Brothers, and Wagner.

Waverley, Fritchle, and (early) Woods, made their own motors. It is hard to sort out some of those who claimed a motor as their own––as GE, Westinghouse (and others) would make them to the clients design––from those actually made in house by their own employees.

1903 A 4-passenger hybrid made in conjunction with the Grant-Ferris Co of Troy NY. Built on the GE steam wagon platform. It had a 4-cylinder gas engine driving a dynamo, with two electric motors driving the rear wheels, the system delivered 12 hp, 2,600 lbs.

GE planned to make a 5-ton truck based on this prototype.

1906-1917      The General Vehicle Co, a GE subsidiary took over the Vehicle Equipment Co and became a significant maker of electric trucks, especially of the delivery type.

As early as 1912, GE became a backer and equipment supplier for the Owen Magnetic. In late 1915, GE invested $2 million in Baker R & L, getting seats on the board for Anson W. Burchard (VP of GE), D. C. Durland, and Richard H. Swartout. The GE money was partly used to bring the Owen Magnetic cars into production by the company, with Raymond Owen as VP of sales. GE made the motor-generator-transmission for the Owen at their Fort Wayne factory; the platforms were made at the Baker factory, and most bodies were by Raulang, as Baker Rauch & Lang’s body division was called.

General Electric      1898-1899     

General Electric Automobile Co

408 Bourse Building, N. Fourth St. Philadelphia, PA

         Shops: 2045-2047 N. Second Street

         Factory in the old Inquirer Paper Mill at Manayunk, PA

Incorporated June 3, 1898 in Philadelphia under the laws of West Virginia with capital stock of 2.5 million.

F. S. Pusey, president; John M. Butler, secretary & treasurer. Other directors were John A. Brill (of J. G. Brill Co, streetcar builders), Professor W. D. Marks, Rudolph M. Hunter & John H. Noblit. Founded to exploit the basket of patents collected by attorney Rudolph M. Hunter. Many of the patents were too broad to be enforceable.

         Mostly, delivery wagons were made.

1899        The vehicles had 44 cell batteries in removable trays under the floor. The batteries were designed to be charged outside of the cars, or in place. The battery was in series.

                 Brougham, outside front drive, very similar to Columbia.

                 Phaeton, two passengers

G V C      1906-1917 General Vehicle Company Inc.

Originally called the Vehicle Equipment Co.

Borden & Review Avenues, Long Island City, NY

         Formed June 1, 1906 by General Electric. $450,000 preferred and $450,000 common stock.

S. C. Mitchell, 1st VP; J. Howard Hanson, 2nd VP; H. M. Francis, secretary & treasurer; Robert M. A. Floyd, general manager; G. W. Wesley, Superintendent; F. F. Phillips, sales manager.

This was GE’s second foray into manufacturing electric trucks on Long Island. They also bought Daimler from the Steinway family, making a small number of trucks with Daimler's Connstatt  gasoline engine, and an electric delivery truck. Production of these was just getting rolling when a fire destroyed the factory in 1907, after which the focus turned to the newly acquired, and larger, GVC.

GVC became one of the top five electric truck makers and did not make pleasure cars. Through 1916 they owned a 1911 Baker for the executives to drive.

1911        5 truck models from the 700 lb. load, $1,600 model, to the 5 ton $4,500 model, Under slung proprietary battery, with General Electric motors, controllers, and meters.


Germaine        1900-     

Ateliers Germain   

Monceau-sur-Sambre, Charleroi, Belgium

Mostly gasoline vehicles under license, later, streetcars

         1903        A hybrid

Die Gesellschaft für Verkehusunternechmungen

         42 Unter der Linden, Berlin N. W.

1900        Break

                  Coupé, Outside drive, duplex tube frame, twin motors with spur drive to the wheels, 25-mile range.

                  Omnibus, 6-passengers, 2-Siemens & Halske motors, 44 Pollak cells, 3½ tons, 10 mile range.

                  Wagonette, 8-passengers, 3,960 lbs, Lahmeyer motor


Gibbs Electric 1903-1905     

Gibbs Engineering & Manufacturing Co, Glendale, NY

Hybrid power wagons for mine haulage. The lead vehicle had an engine, generator, and a pair of motors; subsequent cars each had a pair of electric motors powered from the generator.


Gilmore Electric      1904       

Gilmore Electric Co, South Boston, MA

         Primarily a motor maker

Gladiator 1896

Gladiator Cycle Co

         Exhibited at the “Salon du Cycle“ in Paris December 1896. An electric carriage with a Fulman battery, motor mounted on drive axle, rear wheel steering.

GMC Electrics 1911-1917     

General Motors Truck Company, Pontiac MI.

John M. Lansden Jr. started the electric truck and bus department at the Rapid Truck division of GM after Edison took over his eponymous company (see Lansden, Edison). GMC made electric trucks in nine models from ½ ton to 6 tons, with three lengths of frame and wheelbase. 173 trucks were made in 1911 with the Rapid name, followed by 509 with the GMC badge.


Goodnow        1905

         North Main St. Natick, MA

         An electric car made by machinist James Belcher


Grazer Waggon und Maschinenfabrik Aktien Gest. 1909       Graz, Styria, Austria. Streetcars

Grinnell             1911-1916

1911-1912, Phipps-Grinnell Auto Co, Detroit, MI

1912-1916, Grinnell Electric Car Co, Detroit, MI   

14-16 Atwater St. Detroit (1915)

473 Woodward Avenue (1917) 1515 (current number) Woodward, the Grinnell Building (1908, by Albert Kahn)

Ira Leonard Grinnell and Clayton A. Grinnell were piano manufacturers with a very successful chain of music stores.

Joel Phipps came to them with an electric car design. They took the plunge and started making cars. Within months, Phipps left to found his own company, but the Grinnells kept making their car with encouragement from sales manager Henry Goodman, who had 12 years of electric vehicle experience (EVC, Waverley). Elmer W. Grinnell was manager for a time. Sydney J. Guest was the general manager from the fall of 1912.

Ironically, Phipps’ new company was out of business by the end of 1913 while the Grinnells made cars until 1916.

The company was competitive in Detroit, with sales similar to Baker, R & L, or Woods, but only 30% that of Detroit Electric.

The cars had crank up windows and used Diehl motors.


         Coupé, 4-passengers, Wheel steering, pedal reverse, drive chain in oil bath

         Delivery, same chassis as Coupé

1912        Continuous torque drum controller. Reverse by foot pedal, locked out when control lever was engaged. They came shod with solid rubber tires known as “Cleveland Spanish Rollers

         H      Extension Brougham, low slung, shaft drive. $3,000

         K      Coupé, Shaft drive with chain reduction, Westinghouse motor & controller, 30 cell 15 plate USL (United States Lead) battery.

1913        Grinnell” low speed motors and bevel drive. 30-cell battery.

         K      Clear Vision Brougham, New model, 5-passengers, 96” wb, shaft drive, $2,950.

         M     Brougham, 4-passengers, fore drive, 94” wb, straight shaft drive with no chains, 4.25-1 rear axle ratio, Grinnell motor, Cutler & Hammer controller, 40 cell 13 plate USL battery, 100 “ WB, $2,800

         Grinnell introduced a light delivery truck chassis.    Shaft/bevel drive, 98-inch wheel-base.

1914        Grinnell changed to a horizontal controller on the tiller. USL 15-plate battery, McCue axles.

         M     Brougham, 4-passengers, 40 cells, 900 rpm 3.25 hp “Grinnell” motor, $2,950

         K      Brougham, 5-passengers, 30 cells, Westinghouse motor, 94” wb, $3,200

         R      French Brougham, (new model), 5-passengers, no left side door, more glass, front or rear drive with unique “unit transfer control” which swung from the front to the rear seat (blocking where the door would be), 40 cells, 105” wb, $3,400

         S      Brougham, 5-passengers, 100” wb,

1915        The cars were trimmed in blue and grey Bedford cord upholstery. The motors had a Grinnell nameplate.

         S      Coupé, 4-passengers facing forward, rear lever, 100” WB, $3,000

         R      French Brougham, 5-passengers, dual drive positions, 40-cell 17-plate Philadelphia (Philco) battery 50/50 front/rear, 105” wb, $3,400