Electric Car Companies H-I-J-K

Version 3.0


Electric car companies of the world, made before 1940, and listed alphabetically by brand name (when available).

Hobby cars after 1908 are generally omitted. Most makers of commercial electric vehicles are included, but not covered in detail.

The years given each company represent the span of electric car production, not necessarily the total life of the company. Many were previous horse-carriage, or bicycle companies, and several continued to make internal combustion cars post electric.

The majority of these listings were prototypes, and never produced in volume.


H & F Electric 1910

Frank D. Hovey and F. E. Foulke, Detroit, MI

A prototype was exhibited featuring an aluminum-clad body; it weighted 2,200 lbs, had a motor axle, and claimed a range of 140-150 miles per charge.

They were looking for capitol and a factory location.


Hagen              1903-1908

Kölner Accumulatoren Werke, Cologne-Kalk, Germany

Gottfried Hagen,

Cars, cabs (KAW), and trucks (Urbanus) based on Kriéger patents


Hallford           1909-1910     

England,          Electric busses


Hansa-Lloyd            1913

Germany (see Lloyd)


Harper             1908       

Harper Motor Co, Holburn Junction, Aberdeen, Grampion, England

A builder of gas & steam vehicles that made a prototype electric


Hart          1900-1901     

E.W. Hart & Co, Luton, Bedfordshire, England

Hart was the British importer of Daimler & Lohner cars; he briefly sold an electric under his own name. Hart also made an electric called the Lutonia, based on the locus of manufacture.


Haschke           1904 & 1917          

Julius E. Haschke, Chicago, IL, Los Angeles, CA (c.1915)

Worked with Edison and Ford, held battery and motor control patents.

Industrial truck (1917)


Haupt, Homer 1913        Ohio


Hautier            1899-1905     

Sté Hautier, Paris, France


Hawa                1923-1925 

Hannoveresche Waggonfabrils AG, Hanover, Germany


Headland                 1897-1900     

Headlands Patent Electric Storage Battery Co Ltd.

         669-673 High Road, Leyton, London E10

         Showrooms, 12 Pall Mall, London SW

Henry William headland

Headland held the patent for a drive system designed by James T. Robson, with two motors in one case

The cars featured Headland Accumulators.


         Dog cart, rear drive, 4-passengers dos-à-dos, and center pivot steering by means of a crank handle.

         Mail Phaëton, (converted from a horse drawn vehicle) 3-hp

         Phaëton 2-Passengers, chain drive to front axle

         Phaëton 3-Passengers, with 3 hp motor, front axle driven by worm gear

         Victoria. 4-passengers, inside toothed ring gears on front wheels, driven by pinions on motor shaft.

Healey                   1910-1916

Healey & Co, 1654 Broadway, New York, NY

Custom coachbuilder, General Warren Mansfield Healy, made at least 400 front-wheel-drive electric cars to order. The first client was the car’s designer, William Henry Douglas, of New Jersey. The cars were driven by two motors through U Joints to the pivoting front wheels. The steering system used a pair of counter rotating worm gears.

This was the town car of choice for the very wealthy. Three cars were built for J. D. Rockefeller Sr. Three for his brother William, and one for Mrs. George S. Bowdoin (a Morgan partner). General Healey had official use of the Edison battery (along with Bailey & Anderson/Detroit).


Hedag              1905       

Hamburger Elektrische Aktien Gesellschaft, Hamburg, Germany

German cabs licensed from Kiéger.

Two-motor front wheel drive/steer Broughams and Landaulets for taxi service in Hamburg.

All Krieger vehicles used the same front traction device, two series/parallel wound 3-kW motors rotated the front wheels by a pinion on each motor, engaging a large inside toothed ring gear on each front wheel.


Helvetia          1899-1900      Compagnie des Voitueres Electric Helvetia, Combs-la-ville, France


Henry               1899

The Stanley Electric Manufacturing Co, Denver, Colorado

Electric railway engineer John C. Henry said he was building an all-electric car, with dynamic braking recharging the battery, and electric steering. He passed away before he could build much. Henry’s patent was for a Steam/Electric hybrid

Henshel           1899-1906     

Berliner Mascinenfabrik Henschel & Co, Berlin, Germany

         Electric and gasoline cars and cabs


Hercules          1903       

The Federal Manufacturing Co,

American Trust Building, Cleveland, OH

Hayden Eames, from Columbia, designed a platform for a small single chain runabout using a Westinghouse motor and controller. One bought the running gear from Federal, built an angle iron frame from the design provided, add a simple piano box body, and voilà; one had a car.

Hercules          1907

James Mac Naughton Co, Chicago, IL

         2 & 4 seat models


Hercules          1908       

Hercules Electric Co, Indianapolis, IN

H. G. Cox, VP & secretary

Hercules Electric    1914-1915

Hercules Motor Car Co, New Albany, IN

         An assembled car

Hertner            1906       

Hertner Electric Company, Cleveland, OH

John H. Hertner and De Witt C. Cookingham

Hertner supplied traction motors and controllers for the 1905 Rauch & Lang electric coaches. Around 1906 they decided to produce a car of their own. Hertner seems to have made at least one proto-type vehicle, and published a very fancy sales catalog.

Alarmed by the prospect of their supplier becoming a competitor: Rauch & Lang bought Hertner.

Hewitt              1900-1901     

Hewitt-Lindstrom Motor Vehicle Co, Chicago, IL

Charles A. Lindstrom designed the motors, frame, and batteries.

A bus, delivery, Omnibus (Auto mag. Jan 1901), runabout, Stanhope, and Break. 


Holson             1901-1909     

Holson Motor patents Co Then, in 1909, Church Balance Gear Co Ltd.

Based on the patents of Albert B. Holson, Melvin B. Church, & Karsten Knudsen

1901                 Holson Two-Wheeled Electric Vehicle; a prototype two wheel (side/side) vehicle. The 2-seat carriage hung Ferris-wheel style between two large wheels, with motors in the hubs.

1904                 Test of Truck with Holson Gear Motor


Holtzer-Cabot 1891-1895

Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co, an electrical equipment manufacturer in Brookline, MA.

Charles W. Holtzer & George E. Cabot.

The company built two electric coaches for F. Fiske Warren of Boston.

The 1891 coach seated two, and used a series wound Immisch traction motor that Mr. Warren had obtained in England. The motor ran up to 600 RPM producing 4-5 hp. Rawhide pinion gears on either end of the armature shaft (with differential) drove rather large ring gears at each rear wheel. A steering wheel turned the center pivot front carriage with a pinion gear and curved rack; a foot pedal locked the wheel in place. The battery took up a large tall box in the back holding forty 11-E chloride accumulators wired in four blocks of ten cells each, providing speeds of 4, 8, & 16 mph on good level roads. At 8 mph the car could go 40 miles on a charge. The carriage rode on wood carriage wheels with steel tires. It weighed almost 3,000 Lbs.

Spring 1895, Holtzer-Cabot delivered a new open car to an unnamed “wealthy resident,” built by Chauncey Thomas & Co (Boston) in the style of a Break. It used ball bearing axles and had a series wound, 4-pole, 7½ hp, 250 RPM, motor, weighing 450 lbs, which drove the rear wheels through an intermediate shaft by means of two chains. The 5,100 lb, bicycle-handlebar steered, carriage could accommodate six passengers on three forward facing seats. The position of the wheels could be locked in place by means of a toothed segment. The two rear seats were mounted on a floor that was hinged behind the front seat so they could be raised up for access to the 44-cell 250 Ampere-hour battery. The lead chloride battery was in four groups of 11 cells switched for speeds of 5, 8, & 15 mph.

Hoosier Scout  1914       Warren Electric & Machine Co

Indianapolis, IN


Hoyt        1900 American Manufacturing Co

         1904        Hoyt Electrical Instrument Works

Penacook, NH Meter maker Adrian Hazen Hoyt was with Whitney as manager 1880-1900

1900 Hoyt is said to have built six electric and five steam cars.


Hub                  1899-1902

Hub Motor Transit Co, Chicago, IL

Charles Berg (real estate) and H. L. Irwin (attorney). Designed by Fred J. Newman and Joseph (Josef) V. Ledwinka. (The Electrician, London, Oct 26, 1900)

Their hub motor was patented Dec 5, 1899 #638,843.

This car utilized an 11-inch diameter motor in the hub of all four wheels (pat #680,804), similar to the Porsche designs of 1900-1905. Westinghouse made the motors in Pittsburg. They were threatened by a suit from J. M. Hirsh of the United States Construction Co, who claimed Ledwinka got the idea from him three years earlier while in his employ. Porsche made vehicles of similar design in Austria about the same time.

Newman went on to work at Woods. Ledwinka became head engineer at Budd.

1899        Break, 4-passengers, lever steering, four-wheel drive, 42” wood wheels, full elliptical springs at the corners restrained by shackles with no reach rods between axles. Monocle headlight and forward reflecting side lights. Three speeds 4, 7, & 15 mph. Wagon brakes were applied at the rear tires.


Huebner          1914       

O. E. Huebner, Brooklyn, NY

         Cycle car


Hunter Electric       1899-1904     

Randolph M. Hunter,     Philadelphia, PA


Hupp-Yeats      1910-1919

         1910-1912 Hupp Corporation

115-185 Lycaste Street at Jefferson Ave. (Factory 285 Monroe St).       Detroit, Michigan          

         1912-1914 R-C-H Corporation

133 Lycaste St., Detroit, MI

         1914-1919      Hupp-Yeats Electric Car Co Lycaste St. and the Detroit Terminal RR, Detroit, MI


Robert Craig Hupp worked for Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford. In 1908, he started the Hupp Motor Car Co, maker of the Hupmobile.

Just as with Ford and Olds, who were forced to sell their interest in eponymous first companies to their financial partners, Hupp found that his idea of a car company was different than that of his backers, as he wanted to become a major manufacturer quickly.


1910        R. C. Hupp set up a new company, with his younger brother Louis G. Hupp, as secretary and treasurer; also Robert T. Yeats and Sidney B. Winn. At first, his new company was called the Hupp Corporation.

1911        Hupp was forced off the board of the Hupp Motor Car Co, and the original company sued to restrain him from using his name for any other car company.

1912        April, Hupp lost the branding suit and changed the new company name to R-C-H Corp, using His initials. Bert Q. Hazelwood (Grand Rapids), was VP

November 1, 1912, L. G. Hupp resigned.

Westinghouse sued for notes that were not honored by the bank.

         November 24, Robert C. Hupp, president; Charles P. Sieder, VP; J. H. Hartz, treasurer and general manager. Also on the board of directors were; G. W. Rodgers (Akron, OH), J. G. Robertson (Akron), C. G. McCutchin (Jackson, MI), John Kelsey (Detroit), and Frederick Mason Randall (Detroit).

         They were represented in New York by M. G. MacDonald

1913        R-C-H reorganized by Charles P. Sieder.

1914        May, Hupp-Yeats split from R-C-H

1916        September, 3rd, A Michigan State factory report showed Hupp-Yeats as having 7 employees.


The electric car kept the Hupp-Yeats name, featuring luxury coaches designed by mechanical engineer Emil A. Nelson, who also designed explosion engines and cars for the Hupp Motor Car Company.

The car had a low hung body for ease of egress, lower center of gravity, and a more modern look, using a Renault style hood. They called the cars “of French design.” The low center of gravity was stressed as being a safety feature as well as a styling element. The car originally used Hecla steel bevel drive gears, with a very short drive shaft, in a dust proof housing (originally of aluminum, later of cast Iron). A 4-pole Westinghouse motor (V-33, 48 Volt, 26 Amp, 1,700 rpm) was hinged to the chassis at the suspension pivot point. A pinion gear was mounted at the end of the motor’s armature shaft.

The chassis was of 5/32” thick pressed steel channels, with a dropped frame. They advertised “less useless weight,” using aluminum body panels and cast aluminum running boards. Fenders and hoods were of steel.

The front suspension used half elliptic springs, and the rear used ¾ elliptic springs. The rear axle was semi-floating with 1 3/8” shafts, on annular ball bearings.

The controller was a Westinghouse type 501 F2 continuous current controller, which gave 4-speeds to 17 mph. With use of a speed shunt it ran up to 20 mph. Two sets of expanding rear drum brakes were operated by two foot-pedals.

1910        75 Regent Coupés were made by the years end, #13 was shipped mid December.


         1-A Regent Coupé, 4-passengers, 9” ground clearance, Le Moine front axle, a fairly small 54 Volt 135 A h battery was under the front hood, dark blue leather upholstery, dark stained mahogany window frames, available in French grey or Richelieu blue, 86” wb w/50” track, 32 x 3½ ” pneumatic tires, 120 tooth ring gear with straight bevel & 10-1 reduction, $1,750.    


                 Torpedo Runabout, $1,650

1-A          Regent Coupé, 4-passengers, dark blue panels with black undercarriage, hand buffed gunmetal colored leather, 27 cell Hycap battery under front hood, mileage recorder, 2,400 lbs, 86” wheelbase, Bailey tread tires, still $1,750

2-A Torpedo Roadster, on same platform, folding top and windshield, $1,650

1-B Patrician Coupé, the wheelbase was increased to 100”, claimed to be the longest in an electric. Panel colors as requested, domestic broadcloth, whipcord, or leather upholstery. Mileage recorder, Exide 13 plate Hycap or Ironclad battery of 30 cells, in three trays under the bonnet, giving a claimed range of 100 miles, 2,750 lbs, $3,000

1-B Deluxe Patrician Coupé, 4-passenger body 12” longer than the regular Coupé, morocco leather or French tapestry upholstering, gold plated metalwork, 2,800 lbs, $4,000,

                 Royal Limousine, 5-passengers, 4 doors, wheel steering, 2,950 lbs, $4,500,

                 Imperial Limousine, 5-passengers facing forward, fancier interior than the Royal, with a glass partition that could be raised to separate the front and rear compartments, wheel steering at the front, 2,950 lbs, $5,000


Westinghouse type V33 motor, 26 Amperes, to 1,700 RPM, short-coupled bevel drive    

         1-A Regent Coupé, 4-passengers, 8” ground clearance, frame had 9” rise at rear, 27-cell Exide battery in three trays, bevel/spur drive with 4-1 reduction, 86” wb, semi-floating rear axle, lever steer standard, 5-speed rotary controller,  $1,750

         1-B           Patrician Coupé, $2,150,

         2-A Torpedo Runabout, $1,650


About 20 cars were made, from parts in stock, as the company sought new capitol.

The company’s reputation was hurt by trouble with the bevel drive unit, which the company essentially recalled in September of 1914. The whole rear axle assembly had to be removed from the car and shipped back to the factory, the unit was returned with a new worm gear drive.


An updated series of cars, with worm drives from the Cleveland Worm & Gear Co, and a larger battery.

Desperate to save its reputation from the bevel drive disaster Hupp-Yeats announced "A Guarantee for Life." The company guaranteed its product free from defects in material or workmanship during the life of the car, and guaranteed to replace, free of charge, any defective material returned to the factory for inspection. In this case “life” meant the life of the company, which was less than five years.

         1-A Regent Coupé, 96” WB,

         3-A Regent Coupé, $1,600

         4-B Regent Coupé, $1,750


         3-A Regent Coupé, 27 cells, $1,500

         4-B Regent Coupé, 30 cells, $1,750

         5     Patrician Coupé, 36 cells, 100” wheelbase, $2,000

1917-19 Models 4 & 5 were continued

1920        Westinghouse sued Hupp-Yeats again, for $5,939.83 in unpaid bills from December 1914.




Ideal                         1905-1906

Ideal Motor Car Co, Cleveland, OH

Ideal                      1909-1912

Ideal Electric Co,    444 West Indiana St, Chicago IL.

John S. Ryerson, president; S. H. Peterson, VP; Carl J. Holdredge, Secretary and general manager.

A transverse motor was under the seat in this double side chain car. A band brake was on the drum at one end of the motor. The motor and/or the drive assembly were removable as separate units.


         Brougham       4-passengers, 92” wb, 40 cell 112 A h battery, Westinghouse motor & controller, imported annular ball bearings, 2,500 lbs, double chain drive, $1,875. It was promoted as having the longest wheelbase, being five inches wider, and having finer trimming, for less money. In September of 1910 they claimed “nearly” 3,000 happy clients.


         Brougham, 4-passengers, chain drive, 80 Volt series/parallel Westinghouse motor, 92” wb, 30” front and 32” rear wheels, cushion tires (pneumatic optional), running board 12” above ground, $2,000


         In 1912 Borland-Grannis bought Ideal, and put Borland’s name on the car.


Illinois             1909-1914     

The Ovenbolt Co, Galesburg, IL


Illinois Electric Vehicle Transportation Co, the         

         1899        Chicago, IL,

         Samuel Insull, president.

The Chicago franchise of the EVC taxi syndicate.

This company ran EVC cabs in Chicago for about a year.


Immisch           1888-1907

Immisch & Company, London England.

         1894-1897      Acme Immisch Electric Works Ltd.

Chalk Farm, London NW

         1897-1907 Immisch Electric Launch Co

An electric launch builder/operator

Moritz Immisch made motors from 1 to 12 hp, at 48, 65, 95, or 120 Volts. Immisch motors were used on several of the earliest electric vehicles.


         Dogcart, built for the Sultan of Turkey at the cost of $1,000. Four passengers dos-à-dos, full elliptic springs front and rear. Steered by a crank handle on a shaft that ran though the floorboard to a pinion gear engaged with a toothed rack. Belt drive to the right rear wheel with the 1½ hp (48 Volts 20 Amperes) Immisch motor bolted to the underside of the carriage. The cart ran at 10 mph. Center pivot steering.


Imperial          1902-1907     

Imperial Electric Motor Co. and the Commercial Truck Co of America, Philadelphia, PA

16 hub-motor double deck buses.

         designed by Joseph Ledwinka.

Runabout        Twin hub-motor front wheel drive

Heavy truck    4-hub motor platform


Imperial           1904-1905     

The Anti-Vibrator Co Ltd.      Croyden, Surrey, England

A 3-hp motor in each drive wheel, low to the ground


Induhag           1922       

Industrie-und Handels-Gesellschaft GmbH, Dusseldorf, Germany


International           1898       

Societé Des Transports Automobiles,

The Hague, Netherlands


Interurban      1905       

F. A. Woods Auto Co, Chicago, IL

A one-passenger car with two, interchangeable, motor axles. The main axle was electric, but for long trips, one could swap it out for the 2-cylinder gasoline motor axle. The entire axle pivoted for steering.


Ivanhoe           1901-1904

Bicycle maker CCM (Canadian Cycle and Motor Co)

Toronto, Ontario




Jeantaud              1881-1906

         51 Rue de Ponthieu, Paris, France

An innovative carriage builder; in 1878 Charles Jeantaud improved Ackermann steering (wheels pivoting near the hubs at the ends of the front axle instead of the entire axle pivoting at the center; patented 1817) by making the turning wheels align with the vehicles pivot center, rather than stay parallel with each other.

In 1881, Jeantaud built an experimental electric vehicle using a Tilbury style buggy, with a Gramme motor, and Fulmen battery. He continued to use this buggy as his experimental platform, with different motors and batteries, until he started vehicle production in 1893.

Jeantaud made a variety of electric vehicles, but the bulk of production was cabs.

Jeantaud’s cars set land speed records in 1898 at 39.24 mph, and in 1899 at 43.69 mph. Most models had wheel steering.

1896        He showed an electric carriage at the fourth annual “Salon du Cycle” in Paris Dec 12-27th.

1898        ¾ Coupé         wire wheels, single motor front wheel drive with traction transmitted through sets of conical pinions coupled to conical gears, the pivot center of these gears was on the same pivot center as the steering knuckles. 17-plate, 50 cell battery.

1899        Coupé     2-passengers

                 Cab          2-passengers

                 Mylord (similar to Victoria, with driver at back), 2-passengers plus driver


Jenatzy      1897-1903

Jenatzy-Martini, Brussels, Belgium

         Compagnie Internationale des Transports Automobiles, Boulogne-sur-Seine.

1900-1903 Société Generale des Transports Automobile.

Camille Jenatzy (1868-1913) designed, built, and raced electric and (later) gasoline cars.

In May of 1899, Jenatzy ran a Kilometer in forty-seven & 4/5 seconds from a standing start, and 34 seconds with a flying start (65.8 mph), to beat Count Chasseloup-Laubat’s land speed record of 57.65 MPH, set in a Jeantaud electric.

Jenatzy’s torpedo-bodied 2,200 lb car, “Jamais Contente” was built by Rheims & Auscher. Two Postel-Vinay motors drove the rear axles directly, with no reduction gears, and drew down the 160 Volt battery in a few minutes. The torpedo body, made of “Partinium,” an aluminum & tungsten alloy, did not completely enclose the driver (who stuck out through a hole in the top), or the running gear. This car was an early attempt (possibly the first) at aerodynamics, which only covered half the problem.    

In August 1903 the Jenatzy Electrical Works, owned by Camille’s brother, was destroyed by fire.

In 1904   Camille’s father died, after which he made no more cars.

Camille Jenatzy was killed in a hunting accident in 1913 when his practical joke went awry, and he was mistaken for a wild boar.


1897        Dos-à-dos, prototype

1898        30 cabs for Paris, 4-passengers, chain drive, Fulmen accumulators, 1,669 kilos. 30 Amps at 90 Volts ran the cab at 10 kmh on level paving. Electric & mechanical braking, pneumatic tires. The motor could be heard under the seat.

1899        The Jenatzy vehicles used a large rheostat and three buttons, rather than a knife switch or rotary controller.

                  Coupé      2-passengers

                  Victoria   4-passengers

                  Cab 2-passengers


1900        Dog Phaëton, 5-passengers (two under the folding top) 4-hp motor 7½ mph, chain drive from armature shafts, the battery was in two sets of 22 cells each, under the drivers seat, and under the box in the rear. A pedal actuated a brake on the differential gear.

1901        Gasoline/Electric hybrid capable of 65 mph. Built by Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre. Herstal, Belgium, designed by Jenatzy. A 4-passenger tonneau, with a 6 hp Mors engine with the Pieper drive system.

Joel          1900-1902

National Motor Carriage Syndicate Ltd.

37 Walbrook, London, England

         Henry Francis Joel was the inventor of an “engine dynamo and motor,” profiled in the Scientific American Supplement of July 3, 1886


Phaëton, 4-passengers, two 12-pole (4 is typical) motors of his own design, each weighing 140 lbs, and rated at 2 hp, were mounted to a ridged under frame. Unlike most sub-frame cars, the axles were sprung from the frame, reducing road shock to the motor and body. There was a 2-1 gear-reduction at the motor and a 5-1 reduction through the twin chain drive. The controller provided up to 8 forward speeds by combination of series/parallel battery switching and the use of field shunts. This car, with Rosenthal accumulators (pasted-plate type), went 53 miles, from London to Brighton, on a single charge, good range for 1900.




Kaha        1921-1922     

Electromobilewerk Kaha GmbH

Wasseralfingen, Germany


Kaiser              1911-1913     

Premier Werke AG, Nuremberg, Germany  

Justus Christian Braun


Kammann       1897       

The Kammann Electric Co, Minneapolis, MN

         January 1897, announced intention to build electric cars and boats


Kamman         1903       

Kamman Automobile Co, Chicago, IL

In 1903, announced move to Dubuque, IA

Aluminum body panels and pneumatic seats


KAW                 1904-1908     

Cologne Accumulatoren-Werke, Cologne-Kalk

Battery maker KAW made about 1,500 electric vehicles. The early ones were similar to the Kiéger design, The passenger vehicles were branded KAW, and the commercial ones were branded Urbanus


Keating   1899-1900      Keating Wheel & Automobile Co                        Johnson St. Middletown, Connecticut

Innovative bicycle maker Robert M. Keating hired electrical engineer Ulysses S. G. Croft away from Riker.

They introduced a “Delivery Auto” November 10, 1899. The company was already heavily in debt to A. L. Garford & Charles D. Rood. They were not able to raise new capitol to finance production

         Delivery           Driver and assistant, built for the Siegel-Cooper department store, with the driver on the left, with center lever steering. Twin motors drove ring gears at the rear wheels. Three speeds to 14 mph, with a range up to 45 miles.

The steel frame was hinged from the wheels with a pivoting mechanism that allowed the body to remain level on uneven ground. Ball Bearings throughout, The 44 cell Willard battery was dropped below the frame and could be charged in 55 minutes. On downhill stretches, putting the car in reverse charged the battery. The apple green prototype worked well, and Keating figured he could sell them profitably for $1,800 - $2,000.

         Runabout prototypes were also made.


Kelland            1923       



Keller      1899   

Keller Electrical Shops, Canton, OH

         Announcement of EV production (the Horseless Age)

Keller-Degenhardt 1892

         Columbia Perambulator Co, Chicago, IL

Emil Ernest Keller and Frederick E. Degenhardt made two of the thousand electric tricycles they had promised for the World’s Columbian Exposition; and a larger 4-passenger vehicle.

Keller was put in charge of installing the Westinghouse electrical system for the Exposition, so he became quite busy. He got patent #523,354 for his “Electrically Propelled Perambulator” Filed April 20, 1892, and granted July 24, 1894. Degenhardt had a patent for a steering gear. They used Perret motors

         Tricycle   Perambulator two passengers on a bench seat in front with a driver perched on a chair over their shoulders. A small front wheel turned for steering and the rear axle was driven with small (¼ & ½ hp) motors by means of a worm gear.

         Runabout,       4-passengers Dos-a-dos, tiller steering, 1 hp motor


Kennedy          1898       

Electric Power Development Co, Philadelphia, PA

Charles W. Kennedy, electrical engineer; storage battery & motor patents, with electrician Francis Agnew Pocock, and Ralph Ashley.

         Piano box runabout, two-passengers, wire wheels. The car had a unique semi-center pivot steering system with the pivot center well behind the axel, with front wheel steering and front wheel drive. The multi pole motor was on the front axle, powered by 44 cells. The cells were built in shallow rubber trays, the plates were held in position with sand. One of the first batteries designed explicitly for an open road vehicle

Kerston Gas-Electric                1917 

         920 Kersge Bldg. Detroit, MI

Harry Kerston resigned from Studebaker on April 28, 1917, and partnered with J. William Barnes to make a hybrid.

Kensington              1899-1904

Kensington Automobile Manufacturing Co

Buffalo, NY,   

Formerly; the Kensington Bicycle Co.  

Steam and electric cars.

A light runabout with a tube steel frame


Kensington-Mildé          1899-1904              

         The British branch of Mildé

Kentucky Electric            1911       

Kentucky Wagon Co

Kimball            1888       

Fred Kimball of Boston made an electric tricycle in the style of the high wheeler bicycles. There was a suspended platform for the battery and motor, with a seat perched on the axle. 12 Volts, 5 mph.

Kimball          1910-1913

C. P. Kimball & Co, Chicago, IL

Factory on Michigan Avenue 300 feet from the repository at 315 Michigan, on the corner of Harmon court (now E. 11th St)


1847        Charles Porter Kimball started his first carriage company in Norway, Maine: later becoming a wealthy pillar of the community in Portland, Maine. He moved to New York in 1876, to be involved with Brewster & Co, which continued production of his popular Portland Cutter sleigh.

In January 1887, he started a new company in Chicago, with his son Charles Fredrick Kimball, a recent law school graduate. They were one of the first American carriage builders to use rubber tires. C. P. Kimball passed in March of 1891.

C. Frederick Kimball was one of the judges for the 1895 Chicago race, and the three Electrobats were headquartered at the Kimball Company repository.

1905 - C. Frederick Kimball, president; A. A. Carpenter Jr. (lumber baron), VP; James R. Walker, treasurer; Louis E. Burr, secretary; F. A. B. Smith, assistant secretary.

By 1908 Kimball had become the Chicago agency for Rauch & Lang electric cars.

C. Frederick Kimball started producing electric cars around 1907. They were built in limited quantity to customer specifications, with whatever controls or drivelines were preferred; most cars had wheel steering with the controller above the wheel. The cars were not marketed outside of the Chicago area. C. Frederick Kimball passed away in January of 1909, shortly after his wedding. C. F. Kimball was succeeded by his 24-year-old half brother C. P. Kimball II. Kimball also made limousine bodies for other electric car companies.




E-7            Extension Coupé, 4-passengers, driver in front of cab with roof and windshield, 40 cell battery, $3,000

E-8            Victoria Phaëton, 3-passengers with rumble seat, 40 cell battery, 72” wb, $2,900

F-10 Town Car, 6-passengers, 42 cell battery, 108” wb, 33 x 4 ½ “ solid tires, double chain drive, $3,800


                 Victoria, 2-passengers, with a rumble seat behind the top

                 George IV Phaëton

                 Coupé, 4-passengers, inside steering, tiller or wheel.

                 Station Wagon (limousine), driver (& footman) outside with a steering wheel, 4 passengers in the coach, solid tires, 100” wb, 42-cell thirteen-plate battery.


The standard bodies were a Coupé and a Victoria.

Kimball also made the Bodies for the Borland Limousine.


Victoria, the remaining example was designed in the old style, with right hand drive, open double side chain-drive by countershaft, driven with a transverse motor. Cyclops headlight, with very attractive oval carriage lights at the front quarters. Leather top with open sides, an oval rear window, and leather fenders on steel frames. The car had a clever windshield with a top half that could drop down in front of the lower half. The brass windshield frame sat in front of a small vestigial leather dash. The car ran on 60 Volts with a 32-Ampere, 3¼ hp General Electric motor rated at 1,200 RPM.


Kitsee, Isidor          1900

Electric “Motocycle,” Patent #650,014   5-22-1900


Kriéger      1897-1907

Compagnie Parisienne des Voitures Électriques

45 Blvd. de Valmy, Paris.

         1907-1908 in Colombes

Founded in 1895. A subsidiary of Indusmine, Paris.       July 25th, 1900, capitalized as stock company at 3 million francs.

Kriéger Electrical Carriage Syndicate, Ltd, Gillingham St. SW London. A livery service garage from 1903.


Founded by Louis Antoine Kriéger (1868-1951), and Ernest Cuénod. A later technical director was Sigismund Meyer.

Cuénod designed their series wound drive motors, made by Postel-Vinay, with a second set of parallel field windings for regenerative braking. Mostly large, heavy, outside drive Landaulets and Broughams for use as cabs.

About 800 were made at the Paris factory, 400 being Landaulets. They were also made, under license, in Germany and Italy.

Kriégers were owned by the king of Italy (three), and Great Britain, the shah of Persia, and the khedive of Egypt.



While working at the Fulman battery company Kriéger converted a Victoria carriage into an electric by modifying the front wheel assembly into a tractor unit, with a pair of motors. Said to have a 30 km range.


         Hack, driver up front and two passengers at the rear, with a folding top. Two motors and a battery were in the front drive traction unit, the entire traction unit rotated for steering, aided by shunting the motor armature on the wheel at the inside of the curve. The motors were geared to large outside toothed ring gears through an intermediate helical gear with a reduction of 10-1.

         Carriage, 5-passengers, 4,144 lbs, 16 cell Julien type battery designed by M. H, Meynier with 450 A h capacity and weighing 1,410 lbs.


Early Kriéger vehicles used the same front traction system, two series/parallel wound 3-kW motors rotated the front wheels by a pinion engaging a large ring gear on each wheel. The battery was at the center. Bodies were interchangeable, for seasonal service. Cells were in new ebonite (hard rubber) cases, as the previous celluloid cases were too flammable.

         Coupé, 1,360 kg, Fulmen accumulators,         



Louis Kriéger applied for a US patent in June, which was issued October 31, 1899. The design used two motors on a center pivot front carriage. Speed reduction was through simple straight cut gears to a spur gear driving a large ring gear at each wheel. The patent drawing featured a Victoria body.        

         Coupé     4-passengers

         Coupé      2-passengers

         Victoria   2-passengers


         The “Powerful” Made under license by the British and Foreign Electric Vehicle Co (an importer of European and American electrics), this was a 2½-ton vehicle designed for distance. It had a pair of 3 hp motors geared to the front wheels; there were six forward speeds. The motors were wired to function as electric brakes or generators as needed. Entered in the English Electric Vehicle Trials of November 6 to 8, it had 60 Leecoll cells with 250 A h capacity weighing 3,360 lbs. In the trial, with two passengers, it went 59 miles on one charge.

         Coupé      Driver and footman outside in front with two passengers inside, 2-motors, attached to the front steering-pivot wheels, geared to a ring gear on each wheel hub. The motors were four pole, with two windings in series and shunt, allowing regenerative braking. Pneumatic tires, 12 mph.


         K1    Landaulet       

The rotary controller was in the steering column


The battery was carried in one or two groups, depending on body type.

         Coupé,    two passengers, £688

         Landaulet,       Two motors on front wheels driving through enclosed helical gears, the motors also were utilized in steering, the motors provided regenerative braking on downgrades, a single pedal for starting and stopping, the controller wrapped around the steering column actuated by a lever at the steering wheel; position 1, reverse; 2, electric braking; 3, neutral; 4, first speed; 5, second speed; 6, battery recuperation at 40 Volts; 7, hill climbing speed; 8, third speed; 9, recuperation at 80 Volts; 10, fourth speed; 11, top speed. 43 miles to a charge, £720


1908 February/March, the electric taxi business was eclipsed by internal combustion vehicles, and the company filed for bankruptcy.         


Kriéger-Brasier       1903-1906

These were the hybrid versions, (Georges Richard) Brasier was a gasoline car company owned by Indusmine, the same parent company as Kriéger.

Chauvin & Arnoux made a special meter for these cars, with three faces.


Kuhlstein 1898-1902     

Kuhlstein Wagenbau, Berlin, Charlottenburg, Germany


Kruse               1900-1905

Hambourg, Germany

Gebruder Kruse